Arabic Verb Tense | Arabic verbs (Present, Past, Future) – Learn Islam

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Dear Brothers and Sisters, Arabic verbs like the verbs in other Semitic languages (with numbers of native speakers only, are Arabic (300 million), Amharic (~22 million), Tigrinya (7 million), Hebrew (~5 million native/L1 speakers), Tigre (~1.05 million), Aramaic (575,000 to 1 million largely Assyrian speakers) and Maltese (483,000 speakers), and the whole vocabulary in those languages, are based on a set of two to five consonants (alif, Bā’, Tā’, Thā’, Jīm, Ḥā’, Khā’, Dāl, Dhāl, Rā’, Zāy, Sīn, Shīn, Ṣād, Ḍād, Ṭā’, Ẓā’, cayn, Ghayn, Fā’, Qāf, Kāf, Lām, Mīm, Nūn, Hā’, Wāw, Yā’,  and Hamza) called a root (triliteral or quadriliteral according to the number of consonants). The root words communicate the basic meaning of the verb, e.g.  b ‘write, ‘read ‘eat’. Changes to the vowels in between the consonants, along with prefixes or suffixes, specify grammatical functions such as person, gender (Male, Female), number (1 to 100), tense, mood, and voice

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There is a rough parallel to the variation in English among the words “wr1-100 iting”, “rewrote” and “unwritten”, where the basic consonant stem is constant but the vowels, prefixes and suffixes change to show different grammatical forms. There are different categories are marked on verbs:

  • The tenses (present, past; future tense is indicated by the prefix sa- or the particle sawfa and the present tense).
  • voices (active voice and passive voice )
  • Two genders (masculine and feminine)
  • Persons (first person, second person, third person)
  • Three numbers (singular, dual, plural)

Six moods in the non-past only (indicative, subjunctive, jussive, imperative sentences, and short and long Forms, the derivational in linguistics systems () indicating derivative concepts such as intensive, causative, reciprocal, reflexive, 

  • Past tense
  • Uses the perfect conjugation
  • Negated with the prefix-suffix combination ما…ـش
  • The simple present tense
  • Uses the imperfect conjugation
  • Rarely used outside a few situations
  • The present continuous tense*
  • Uses the prefix and attached to imperfect verb only

Dear Brothers and Sisters, frequently used for habitual actions, permanent conditions, and present continuous actions only

  • Negated with the prefix-suffix combination ما…ـش
  • Future tense
  • Uses the prefix ha and attached to imperfect verb
  • Negated with مش

ARABIC TENSES

Verb=akala=to eat, masc=m, feminine=f English Pronouns- Arabic Pronouns – Perfect Imperfect

  • Anaa- akaltu- a’kulu
  • Thou (m)- anta- akalta- ta’kulu
  • Thou (f)- anti- akalti- ta’kuliyna
  • He-huwa- akala- ya’kulu
  • She- hiya- akalat- ta’kulu
  • We- nahnu- akalnaa- na’kulu
  • You (m)- antum- akaltum- ta’kuluuna
  • You (f) antenna- akaltunna- ta’kulna
  • You two (m,f) – antumaa- akaltumaa- ta’kulaani
  • They two (m)- humaa- akalaa ya’kulaani
  • They two (f)- humaa- akalataa- ya’kulaani
  • They (m)- hum- akaluu- ya’kuluuna
  • They (f)- hunna- akalna- ya’kulna

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