About Dell – Michael Dell, the longest-serving chief govt officer within the pc industry, founded Dell in 1984. He believed that promoting computers directly to clients would allow Dell to higher recognize and offer the first-rate computing answers. Direct sales removes the want for shops, that can upload time and expense or lessen Dell’s potential to apprehend consumer expectancies.
Direct business fashions permit the agency to create every machine from scratch and provide customers with powerful structures at low priced fees. Dell is capable of introduce the most applicable generation faster than organizations that use sluggish-moving oblique distribution channels. On common, they flip over inventory every three working days.
The records of Dell Inc.
Dell Inc. Turned into the most important direct-sales pc dealer in the international for decades. It now holds a extra market proportion than 15% and is the top seller of computer structures worldwide. Dell sells private computer systems, notebooks, community servers and workstations in addition to video display units, printers, excessive exceptional garage merchandise and various laptop peripherals.
Dell also gives LCD TVs and projectors inside the customer electronics market. Most of Dell’s merchandise are synthetic within the United States. There are six manufacturing vegetation international: Austin, Texas, Nashville, Tennessee, Eldorado do Sul Brazil, Limerick, Ireland, Penang, Malaysia, and Xiamen China. Two-thirds of sales is generated in Americas.
22 percentage originates in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. The last eleven percentage comes from Asia-Pacific. Dell sells its device without delay thru dedicated income representatives, phone-based totally income and online through the enterprise internet site. After stepping down in July 2004, Michael Dell, the founder of Dell, will nevertheless be the CEO of the enterprise.
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The history of computers dates back to the 1800s when the first mechanical calculating machines were invented. However, the modern digital computer that we know today was first developed in the mid-20th century. Here is a brief history of computing:
In the 1800s, inventors began creating mechanical devices to perform mathematical calculations. The first such device was the difference engine, invented by Charles Babbage in 1822. The difference engine was designed to automatically compute and print mathematical tables, but was never completed.
In 1884, Herman Hollerith invented the tabulating machine, which used punched cards to store and process information. The tabulating machine was used to process the 1890 US Census, and marked the beginning of the computer age.
The Birth of the Modern Computer
In the 1930s and 1940s, researchers began developing electronic computers. The first such computer was the Atanasoff-Berry Computer, which was built by John Atanasoff and Clifford Berry in 1937. The Atanasoff-Berry Computer used binary digits to perform calculations, and was the first computer to use electronic switches instead of mechanical components.
In 1941, Konrad Zuse invented the Z3 computer, which was the first computer to be fully programmable. The Z3 used binary code and stored data on punched tape.
The ENIAC (Electronic Numerical Integrator and Computer), built in 1945 by J. Presper Eckert and John Mauchly, was the first electronic general-purpose computer. It used vacuum tubes to perform calculations and was used to calculate ballistic trajectories during World War II.
In 1947, the transistor was invented by John Bardeen, Walter Brattain, and William Shockley at Bell Labs. The transistor replaced vacuum tubes as the primary electronic component in computers, making them smaller and more reliable.
The Rise of Personal Computers
In the 1970s, the first personal computers were developed. The Altair 8800, created in 1975 by Ed Roberts, was the first personal computer to be sold as a kit. Users had to assemble the computer themselves, and it did not include a keyboard or monitor.
In 1976, Steve Jobs and Steve Wozniak founded Apple Computer and introduced the Apple I, a personal computer that came fully assembled and included a keyboard and monitor.
In 1981, IBM introduced the IBM PC, which became the industry standard for personal computers. The IBM PC used the MS-DOS operating system and was the first computer to use a floppy disk drive.
The Internet and Modern Computing
In the 1990s, the internet became widely available to the public, revolutionizing computing and communication. The World Wide Web, invented by Tim Berners-Lee in 1989, made it possible to access and share information on a global scale.
In the 2000s and 2010s, mobile devices such as smartphones and tablets became increasingly popular, leading to the development of mobile operating systems such as iOS and Android.
Today, computing continues to evolve at a rapid pace, with advances in artificial intelligence, cloud computing, and quantum computing promising to revolutionize the way we live and work.
Michael Dell based Dell. He began selling personal computer systems from his freshman year on the University of Texas, Austin. Dell purchased elements wholesale and assembled them into replicas of IBM computer systems.
He offered them thru mail order to customers who didn’t want to pay the higher expenses at laptop stores. It turned into a big achievement. Soon, he become making $eighty,000 in line with month. In 1984, he stop school and founded Dell Computer Corporation. However, it initially did enterprise beneath the name PC’s Limited.
The PC industry became dominated on the time via large corporations like IBM. Smaller, less famous mail-order agencies offered IBM clones at steep discounts. To undersell better-regarded computers that were sold through high-overhead provider networks, Dell used low-value direct advertising and marketing.
Dell advertised in computer magazines to target buyers who are state-of-the-art enough to understand pleasant products at low prices. Toll-unfastened numbers allow customers to area orders for Dell merchandise. These methods made Dell the leading emblem in direct mail.
In its first yr of business, Dell had income of $6million. The subsequent 12 months, Dell become capable of reach $forty million. To manage the company’s fast boom, Dell appointed E. Lee Walker, an ex-investment banker, as its president in 1986. Although Dell became a leader in the mail-order marketplace via 1987, it became clean that the business enterprise had to extend beyond this channel if it wanted to grow.
Dell hired Tandy Corporation’s advertising executives to assist it gain its desires. This organization created a sales crew that would market to huge corporations. They also set up a network for price-added resellers who assembled computer components to be offered in specialized markets.
Tandy’s crew fast raised gross margins from 23 percent to 31 percent remaining yr. They did extra than just undercut charges from competitors. Instead, they set prices consistent with corporation charges. However, the brand new advertising department bumped into troubles with Michael Dell. There have been disputes over advertising and marketing budgets, the number of salespeople needed for resellers and organizations, and how many.
The new Dell group turned into unable to apprehend direct promoting, and they were looking to set up a conventional advertising and marketing department with a huge sales pressure. However, the Tandy institution claimed that Dell had the incapacity to await the sales human beings to make a earnings. Most of the Tandy team had left by way of 1988 or been pressured to go away.
The corporation grew fast, commencing a London branch that sold $four,000,000 worth of computer systems in a month in 1988. A Canadian subsidiary changed into also installed with the aid of Dell. The company created a number of divisions with a purpose to boom its visibility among company, authorities, instructional shoppers. The corporation said $159 million in 1987 income and went public in June 1988. It bought 3.5 million stocks for $eight.50 consistent with proportion.
Increased Competition In The Late 1980s
However, the organization become faced with many challenges. The company introduced their own clone IBM’s PS/2 computer gadget earlier than it became prepared. However, Dell had problem reproducing key aspects of the PS/2 architecture and computer systems had been behind schedule, which embarrassed the younger organization.
In Japan, several Japanese manufacturers were also offering IBM clones at a lower charge, so Dell became confronted with opposition. In addition, Dell spent cash it raised through its stock offering to growth potential and warehouse space. This left the organization with very little coins. The corporation changed into shocked while it underestimated demand within the fourth zone 1988. It then discovered itself brief of coins and had a complete warehouse of unsold computer systems.
In response to growing opposition, Dell increased the technical sophistication of its computer systems. The organization produced record servers with the Unix operating device and 1/2 of its 1988 sales have been from computers the use of the Intel Corporation’s 80386 microprocessor. This changed into the most effective processor on the time.
To work on product development, Dell also hired Glenn Henry, a laptop scientist who changed into no longer affiliated with IBM. Henry started new plans to provide clones after scrapping the organization’s initial tries to clone IBM’s PS/2. Henry grew Dell’s studies and design staff from just a hundred and fifty to almost not anything. They commenced to paintings on ways to mix a couple of functions onto one chip.
The 486 microprocessor was launched through Intel in April 2006. Dell quickly put the processor available on the market and started out promoting computer systems that could run it. Henry additionally desired first-rate images. This required special circuit forums and better video display units. Mid-1989, Dell had completed its initial pictures hardware tries and was now capable of compete in the high stop market.
These advances aside, It still had a studies-and-improvement price range of $7 million. This is a far cry from the loads of hundreds of thousands that IBM and other larger competitors have spent. Although Dell had a 1.8 percent proportion of the marketplace for PCs, it was developing speedy. U.S. Sales reached $257.8M in 1989, even as British sales grew to $40M and a branch in Western Germany executed the spoil-even factor.
It was a marketing company more than a hardware corporation. The fulfillment of its income crew performed a considerable role in this. The sales personnel at Dell had been trained for six weeks before they took their seats on the telephone banks. They additionally met weekly with their managers to talk about patron worries and capability answers. Sales team of workers have been additionally trained to help customers sell their merchandise.
They assisted shoppers in customizing orders and selling greater reminiscence and integrated modems. The orders have been sent to Dell’s manufacturing unit close by, wherein they were fulfilled inside 5 days. Dell’s telemarketing system allowed it to acquire information about its customers. This helped the organization spot capacity opportunities and make mistakes a lot faster than different PC corporations.
To serve clients during Europe, the Middle East and Africa, Dell mounted subsidiaries in France and Italy in 1990. The agency also started out promoting computer systems through huge laptop shops, which were a supplement to its installed operations. It changed into additionally making sizeable corporate inroads, which includes growing patron/server computing solutions with Andersen Consulting and introducing powerful servers walking the Unix running structures.
The corporate international accounted for 40% of Dell’s $546million in 1990 income, up from 15% in 1987. Dell became the 6th-biggest PC producer within the United States, surpassing range 22 in 1989. It also retained 2,a hundred employees. The employer’s attention on purchaser pleasure was additionally a success, being ranked number one by means of J.D. Powers Associates’ first survey on client pleasure with PCs.
However, Dell offered too many memory chips that 12 months and needed to cancel a plan to create a new line of workstations. In 1990, earnings dropped sixty five percent to $five,000,000 notwithstanding the firm’s doubled income.
Price Wars in Early 1990s
The traditional PC marketplace channels were additionally in flux at some stage in this period. Due to a slumping marketplace, PC producers engaged in a fierce price war which resulted nearly everywhere in slumping profits. Compaq and IBM all saw their profits decline or had to lay off employees.
Compaq also filed a lawsuit against Dell. It claimed that It ‘s advertisements made defamatory statements about Compaq. However, It sincerely benefited from the economic recession. Customers had much less money but nonetheless needed computer systems. They offered Dell’s low priced, but technologically superior IBM clones in record volumes. Annual income soared to $1 billion.
The notebook-sized phase of the PC market turned into the fastest growing inside the Nineteen Nineties. It committed sources to growing its first notebook model, which became launched in 1991. It delivered a complete-color notebook and started out advertising PCs with Intel’s 486 microchip.
Compaq, previously a greater pricey manufacturer that burdened its satisfactory engineering and better charges, decided to reposition itself to stand Dell. It released a low-quit laptop priced at $899, as well as improving its customer support. To maintain its market share, Dell needed to reduce its laptop costs as much as $1,400 due to new competition. Because its running prices were most effective 18% of sales, Dell changed into capable of find the money for such high charge cuts.
Compaq’s price of operations was 36 percentage. Also, the competition compelled It to abandon its efforts to emphasize its engineering. The executives at Dell commenced to refer to computer systems as appliances-like products, downgrading the importance era. This extended advertising stress led to Dell selling computer peripherals and software from different companies.
It soon improved its services to consist of fax machines and compact disks. This effort was made feasible by using Dell’s database that contains records approximately the buying conduct and shopping conduct of over 750,000 customers.
The pocket book marketplace become particularly stricken by technological troubles that Dell confronted toward the end 1992. The organization needed to cancel some of notebook computer systems in 1993 because of first-class issues. This resulted in a $20 million loss on profits.
Although the firm turned into anticipated to have a three.5 percentage marketplace share in 1993, Digital Equipment Corporation, which focuses on minicomputers, became nevertheless the largest laptop mail-order enterprise. Compaq’s low-fee PC line was challenged via It ‘s Dimensions by using Dell range of low-value computers.
The yr noticed income of $2 billion and Dell released a 2d stock offering well worth $148 million.
In the early Nineteen Nineties, Dell attempted to undertaking into retail marketing. This changed into the maximum famous channel with man or woman clients. In 1990, Dell located its merchandise at Soft Warehouse Superstores (later renamed CompUSA), after which in 1991 moved to Staples that’s a reduction workplace supply chain.
It allowed the stores to sell the goods at postal orders, which prompted lots of hassle for the corporation. Dell had to pay outlets repayment for the lack of fee from existing computers that had been on store shelves. Because every pc turned into custom-made to meet a purchaser’s order, Dell by no means had vintage computer systems in stock. The retail market was abandoned by using Dell in 1993.
In early 1993, It reduced charges and extended its guarantee duration because of persevering with rate wars. However, multiplied opposition and technical mistakes had adversely affected Dell and the corporation introduced that it suffered 1 / 4-region lack of more than $seventy five million in 1993.
This become its first ever loss. Many of its problems had been due to inner troubles that resulted from its extra special boom. Dell spoke back by way of reducing its PCs the use of growing older era, and restructuring its pocket book department as well as European operations.
As lots of its competition, Dell turned into affected by the industrywide consolidation that occurred in early 1990s. However, the consolidation furnished possibilities for Dell to gain marketplace proportion from organizations that had been last down. Dell aggressively entered markets outdoor the US, such as Latin America in which Xerox started to sell Dell computer systems lower back in 1992. In 1993, 36% of Dell’s international income were done. In 1993, Dell hooked up subsidiaries in Australia and Japan to enter the Asia-Pacific vicinity.
Expansion in the Late 1990s
It said income of $149million in 1995, after a 1994 loss of $36million. The organization also brought Pentium-based totally notebook computer systems in 1995 and a famous dual processor PC. The company skilled a speedy boom of almost 50% in that year and the following, increasing its market proportion to approximately four percentage. This helped the corporation climb up the listing of pinnacle-5 laptop vendors international.
In 1996, enlargement continued on many fronts. Dell released a line community servers, and have become the fastest-growing corporation inside this region. In Penang, Malaysia, the employer opened a manufacturing plant. However, the maximum massive development was Dell’s selection to promote at once to clients via the Internet. In three years, Dell had sold $30 million according to day via the Internet.
This could account for forty% of the enterprise’s overall revenue. It changed into capable of acquire great efficiency by using the use of the net to coordinate orders from purchasers and its very own elements orders from suppliers. The web website supplied technical aid to the customers and allowed them to song their orders from manufacturing until shipping.
In 1998 and 1997, Dell saw an exponential increase price of 944 million greenbacks. New products and services have been added by using the organization, which include a line workstations, a leasing plan for people and a line garage merchandise below PowerVault.
It improved its manufacturing vegetation in Europe and the US. It opened a client and production middle in Xiamen (China) in 1998, bringing the overall quantity of remote places Dell plants to three. It was fourth inside the laptop industry in the back of Compaq, Hewlett-Packard and IBM when it bought its ten-millionth pc. It had a nine percentage marketplace share and changed into the range two laptop manufacturer via mid-1998.
In 1999, It launched an online superstore selling pc-associated products. This become in reaction to the organization’s fulfillment with direct sales thru the Internet. Gigabuys.Com sold low-priced hardware, software program and peripherals from different businesses inside the industry.
However, Dell still sells its products at www.Dell.Com. In 1999, It net, an Internet get right of entry to provider for Dell clients, became added to the employer’s Internet services. The organization brought production flowers to its global manufacturing network in 1999. They had been placed in Nashville, Tennessee, and Eldorado do Sul (Brazil). Dell suggested internet profits for the economic 12 months ended January 2000 at $1.86 billion, on overall sales of $22.Fifty six billion.
The Early 2000s: Managing the Global PC Downturn and Diversifying
It launched a rate conflict towards its competition, which allowed Dell to growth its marketplace share after the PC enterprise skilled its worst stoop in 2000. With a percentage of thirteen percentage, Dell become capable of take the global pinnacle spot in PC income with the aid of 2001. Hewlett-Packard obtained Compaq at some point of the downturn, creating a more potent competitor. In response to the stoop in PC sales, Dell aggressively driven into the marketplace for Internet server hardware.
This zone is extra profitable than the PC marketplace. The business enterprise released a fee war at the low end of its market for server merchandise, which slashed a number of its margins but allowed it to increase its percentage.
It additionally targeted better-margin segments. In overdue 2001, it persevered its push into garage through forming an alliance with EMC Corporation so that you can increase a new data-storage machine. It also entered the marketplace for low-end networking equipment that small companies use, launching the Power Connect network switches line in 2001.
Through a first-rate cost-cutting initiative, Dell managed to stay within the black even as its competitors were losing money. It become the primary time that vast layoffs were made within the business enterprise’s records. In 2001, 5,seven hundred jobs were removed from the payroll and nearly $600m in restructuring expenses were incurred. Despite the reality that income were reduced, Dell nevertheless controlled to report internet earnings of $1.78 Billion on sales of $31.17 Billion for 2002.
While Michael Dell turned into nonetheless the chairman and CEO of the enterprise he founded, Kevin B. Rollins was taking over greater day-to-day operations and turned into instrumental within the maneuvers that allowed the business enterprise to outperform its competition in the course of the droop. Rollins changed into a representative for Dell at some point of his time at Bain & Company before becoming a member of Dell as a senior vice president in 1996.
In 1997, he turned into appointed vice-chairman and became chief working officer and president in 2001. Rollins assumed the operating reins, permitting Michael Dell to cognizance extra on strategic planning and lengthy-time period dreams.
As it endured to search for new possibilities for boom, Dell Computer accelerated its enterprise. It aimed to increase sales via $60 billion in fiscal 2007. The organization launched its Axim personal digital assistants (PDAs) in 2002 to go into the handheld pc market. It released its own printer line in 2003, which became aimed at each purchasers and corporations.
About Dell – In 2003, Dell installed itself inside the competitive consumer electronics marketplace by means of introducing flat-panel LCD televisions and virtual tune players. In 2002, Dell installation kiosks in shopping facilities to allow customers to attempt out Dell computer systems and printers before they ordered on line. In 2003, the company opened its first Dell shop within a Sears, Roebuck & Company outlet.
In mid-2003, the employer’s growing interests have been made concrete by way of the alternate of the organization’s call from Dell Inc to Dell Inc. This become in response to huge increases within the shipments of high income-margin merchandise like servers, pocket book computers and storage device. The internet income soared 25% to $2.Sixty five Billion, and revenues rose 17 percent to $forty one.Forty four Billion.
After these awesome results had been introduced, Michael Dell, who was the longest-serving CEO of a primary U.S.
Organization in pc technology, said that he could be stepping down in July 2004 to grow to be Rollins’ CEO, but that he might still remain active in the employer as the chairman. It become anticipated that Dell could preserve its leadership function in computer structures, in addition to its goals to develop inside the wider industry and in patron electronics.
Principal Operating units: Dell Americas, Dell Asia Pacific – Japan; Dell Europe and the Middle East.
Principal Competitors Hewlett-Packard Company, International Business Machines Corporation, Apple Computer, Inc., Gateway, Inc., Sun Microsystems, Inc.
- Key Dates
- 1984: Michael Dell founded Dell Computer Corporation.
- 1988 The enterprise goes public using three.5 million shares.
- 1991: Dell introduces the primary notebook laptop.
- 1993: Dell opens subsidiaries in Australia, Japan and the USA.
- 1996: Company starts selling over the Internet.
- 1997: Dell introduces new workstations.
- 2001: The organisation takes the most important percentage of the worldwide computer market.
- 2003 The organisation’s widening hobbies brought about the trade of its call to Dell Inc.
- 2004: Michael Dell introduced that he would really like to surrender as CEO, but will continue to be chairman.
- Public Company
- Incorporated as 1984 via Dell Computer Corporation
- Employees: forty six,000
- Sales: $forty one.Forty four Billion (2004)
- Stock Exchanges NASDAQ
- Ticker symbol: DELL
- NAIC 334111 Electronic Computer Manufacturing, 334112 Computer Storage Device Manufacturing, 334119 Other Computer Peripheral Equipment Manufacturing. 454110 Electronic Shopping & Mail-Order Houses
Q: What is Dell? A: Dell is a multinational computer technology company that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services.
Q: When was Dell founded? A: Dell was founded on February 1, 1984, by Michael Dell.
Q: Where is Dell headquartered? A: Dell is headquartered in Round Rock, Texas, USA.
Q: What products does Dell offer? A: Dell offers a range of products, including desktop and laptop computers, servers, storage devices, networking equipment, printers, and accessories.
Q: What services does Dell offer? A: Dell offers a range of services, including cloud computing, cybersecurity, data analytics, IT consulting, support services, and software development.
Q: What is Dell’s market share in the computer industry? A: Dell is one of the largest computer manufacturers in the world and has a significant market share in the computer industry, with an estimated 16% share in 2021.
Q: Who are Dell’s competitors? A: Dell’s competitors include other major computer technology companies such as HP, Lenovo, Apple, and Asus.
Q: What is Dell’s revenue? A: Dell’s revenue for fiscal year 2021 was $94.2 billion.
Q: What is Dell’s mission statement? A: Dell’s mission statement is “to be the most successful computer company in the world at delivering the best customer experience in markets we serve.”
Q: What is Dell’s corporate social responsibility policy? A: Dell has a strong commitment to corporate social responsibility and sustainability, with a focus on environmental stewardship, diversity and inclusion, ethical practices, and community engagement.
Dell is a multinational computer technology company that develops, sells, repairs, and supports computers and related products and services. The company was founded in 1984 by Michael Dell, who started the company in his dorm room at the University of Texas at Austin. Here is a comprehensive history of Dell:
Early Years (1984-1990)
In 1984, Michael Dell founded the company under the name PC’s Limited. The idea was to sell computers directly to customers, cutting out the middleman and reducing costs. The company began by selling computers to local businesses, but quickly expanded its reach by advertising in computer magazines.
In 1985, the company released its first computer, the Turbo PC, which became a commercial success. The following year, the company changed its name to Dell Computer Corporation and went public, raising $30 million in its initial public offering.
Expansion and Growth (1991-2000)
In the 1990s, Dell experienced rapid growth and became one of the largest computer manufacturers in the world. The company introduced new products, such as servers and laptops, and expanded its operations globally.
In 1992, Dell opened its first international subsidiary in the United Kingdom, and later expanded to other countries in Europe, Asia, and Latin America. The company’s direct-to-consumer business model and efficient supply chain management helped it to maintain low costs and high customer satisfaction.
In 1996, Dell launched its website, becoming one of the first computer companies to sell products online. The following year, the company surpassed Compaq to become the largest seller of personal computers in the world.
In 1999, Dell introduced the Dell Precision workstation, which was designed for professional users in industries such as engineering, architecture, and graphic design. The workstation became a popular choice for creative professionals and helped Dell to expand its market share.
Challenges and Turnaround Efforts (2001-2012)
In the 2000s, Dell faced increasing competition and struggled to maintain its market share. The company faced criticism for poor customer service and quality issues, which led to a decline in sales and profitability.
In 2004, Michael Dell stepped down as CEO, but returned to the role in 2007 to lead a turnaround effort. The company focused on improving customer service, investing in research and development, and expanding into new markets.
In 2006, Dell acquired the gaming computer manufacturer Alienware, which helped the company to enter the high-end gaming market. The following year, Dell launched the Inspiron and XPS gaming laptops, which became popular among gamers and enthusiasts.
In 2009, Dell acquired Perot Systems, a provider of IT consulting and outsourcing services, for $3.9 billion. The acquisition helped Dell to expand its services business and compete with other IT services providers.
Going Private and New Acquisitions (2013-2022)
In 2013, Dell went private in a $24.4 billion buyout led by Michael Dell and private equity firm Silver Lake Partners. The company cited the need for more flexibility and the ability to focus on long-term growth as reasons for going private.
After going private, Dell continued to expand its business through a series of acquisitions. In 2015, the company acquired data storage company EMC Corporation for $67 billion, making it one of the largest technology acquisitions in history. The acquisition helped Dell to expand its offerings in the data storage and cloud computing markets.
In 2016, Dell sold its software division to private equity firm Francisco Partners and hedge fund Elliott Management for $2.4 billion. The move was part of a larger strategy to focus on core businesses and reduce debt.
In 2018, Dell returned to the public markets after a five-year absence, following a complex deal involving its subsidiary VMware.