Scientist Information – Science is an integral part of everyday life. Even more than we realize. It is all a gift of science and technology, from the fancy gadgets we have to our daily lives to the technologies that we cannot live without to our simple light bulbs to space explorations.
What would we do if these things weren’t invented? We rarely take the time to reflect on those extraordinary minds that made our lives easier. Here’s a list with 14 Indian scientists who have achieved international recognition.
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1. CV Raman
Scientist Information -Chandrasekhara Venkataraman was awarded the Nobel Prize for Physics for his pioneering work in scattering light. He was born in Tiruchirapalli, November 7, 1888. He was the first Asian-born scientist to win a Nobel Prize in science. Raman also studied the acoustics and use of musical instruments. Raman was the first person to study the harmonic nature and sound of Indian drums like the tabla or the mridangam.
He discovered that light can change in wavelength when it passes through transparent materials. This phenomenon, now known as Raman scattering, is the result the Raman effect.
He collapsed in his laboratory on October 1970. The doctors gave him four hours of life and moved him to a hospital. After surviving, he refused to remain in hospital for more than a few days. He preferred to die in his gardens at the Raman Research Institute in Bangalore, surrounded by his flowers. On 21 November 1970, he died from natural causes.
Raman, before he died, told his students:
The Academy journals must not be lost. They are sensitive indicators of how science is being conducted in the country.
2. Homi J. Bhagha
Homi Jehangir Bhag was born in Bombay on October 30, 1909.
He was the first Indian to be elected Chairman of the Atomic Energy Commission of India. Bhabha, who had his scientific career in nuclear Physics in Great Britain, returned to India to play a crucial role in convincing Jawaharlal Naehru and other senior Congress Party leaders to launch the ambitious nuclear programme.
Bhabha is widely considered to be the father of Indian nuclear power. However, few know that Bhabha was against India producing atomic bombs even though it had the resources. He suggested instead that India should use the atomic reactor to alleviate its misery and poverty.
On 24 January 1966, Air India Flight 101 crashed close to Mont Blanc. He was killed. There are many theories about the crash, including one that the Central Intelligence Agency is involved to paralyze India’s nuclear program.
Sir Mokshagundam Visvesvaraya, who was born on 15 September 1861, was an Indian engineer, scholar and statesman. He served as the Diwan of Mysore from 1912 to 1918. He was awarded the highest honor of India, the Bharat Ratna.
Sir M V suggested India should be on par with industrialized countries because he believed India can develop through its industries.
He is credited with inventing the ‘automatic gates’ and a ‘block irrigation system, which are still marvels of engineering. His birthday, 15 September, is celebrated in India as Engineer’s Day.
Because riverbeds were expensive, he invented a way to filter water through “Collector Wells” in 1895. This was a rare find anywhere else in the world.
4. Venkatraman Radhakrishnan
Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, also known as Venkatraman Radhakrishnan, was born in Tondaripet (a suburb of Chennai) on May 18, 1929. Venkataraman, a world-renowned space scientist, was also a member of Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.
He was an internationally recognized Astrophysicist, and is also well-known for designing and fabricating ultralight aircraft and sailboats.
His observations and theoretical insights were invaluable to the community as they attempted to unravel many mysteries related to pulsars and interstellar cloud formations. He died in Bangalore at the age 81.
5. S. Chandrashekar
He was born in Lahore (British India) on October 19, 1910. His mathematical theory of black hole, the Nobel Prize for Physics 1983, was presented to him. He is the reason that Chandrasekhar limit was named after him. He was the nephew of CV Raman. In 1953, Chandra was made a citizen of the United States.
His most famous work is the radiation of energy by stars, especially white dwarf stars which are the dying fragments stars. He was 82 years old when he died in Chicago on August 21st 1995.
6. Satyendra Nath Bose
Born January 1, 1894 in Calcutta. SN Bose is an Indian physicist who specialised in quantum mechanics. Most notable is his contribution to the bosons class of particles, which was named after him by Paul Dirac in recognition of his contributions to the field.
Bose made a translation of a lecture given at the University of Dhaka about the theory of radiation, and the UV catastrophe into a brief article entitled “Planck’s Law” and sent it off to Albert Einstein. Bose agreed to translate his paper “Planck’s Law and Hypothesis Of Light Quanta” into German and published it in Zeitschrift fur Physik in 1924. These were the foundation of the Bose-Einstein Statistics.
Satyendra Nath Bose. In 1954, India’s second highest civil award was given to him: the Padma Vibhushan.
7. Meghnad Saha
Meghnad Saha was born in Dhaka on October 6, 1893. His most well-known work involved the thermal ionisation elements. This led to him formulating the Saha Equation. This equation is one the most important tools to interpret the spectra stars in astrophysics. Studying the spectra of stars can help determine their temperature. Then, one can use Saha’s equation to calculate the ionisation states of the elements that make up the star.
He also created an instrument that measured the pressure and weight of solar radiations. Did you know that he was also chief architect for river planning in India. He was the one who drafted the Damodar Valley Project’s original plan.
8. Srinivasa Ramanujan
Ramanujam, an Indian mathematician, was born in Tamil Nadu on 22 December 1887. He made remarkable contributions to mathematics analysis, number theory and continued fractions despite having almost no formal education in pure mathematics.
He had already exhausted the mathematical knowledge of two college students, who were staying at his house from age 11 to 12. Later, he was given a book by S. L. Loney on advanced trigonometry. By the age 13 he had mastered the book and was able to discover sophisticated theorems by himself.
We didn’t know that he had many health issues while living in England because of the scarcity of vegetarian foods. At 32 years old, he died in India.
Scientist Information – Tamil Nadu, Ramanujan’s state, celebrates 22 Dec (Ramanujan’s birthday) as ‘State IT Day’. This day commemorates both the man himself and his accomplishments.
9. Jagadish Chandra Bose
Acharya J.C.Bose was a man with many talents. He was born in Bikrampur (West Bengal) on 30th November 1858. He was a polymath and physicist as well as a botanist, biologist, archaeologist, and a biologist. He was a pioneer in the study and use of microwave optics and made significant contributions to the study and study of plants. He was the first to use semiconductor junctions for radio signals detection, demonstrating wireless communication in the real world. He is also likely to be considered the father of open-technology, since he made his inventions available for others to develop. His refusal to patent his work is legendary.
Another well-known invention is the crescograph. This was used to measure plant responses to stimuli. He hypothesized that plants could feel pain or understand affection.
Most of us know about his scientific abilities, but we may not know that he was an early writer of science fiction. He is actually considered to be the father of Bengali science fiction.
10. Vikram Sarabhai
Vikram Sarabhai, who is considered the Father of India’s space program, was born in Ahmedabad, Gujarat, on 12 August 1919. In this quote, he was instrumental in setting up the Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO). He convinced the Indian government about the importance of a space program for developing nations after the launch Russian Sputnik.
Some people question the value of space activities in developing countries. We see no contradiction in our purpose. We don’t dream of being able to compete with economically advanced countries in exploration of the moon, planets or manned flight.
We are certain that we can play an important role in the nation and the world at large if we apply advanced technologies to solve the real problems facing man and society.
In 1966, he was awarded the Padma Bhushan and in 1972 the Padma Vubhushan. Although everyone is aware of his main role in ISRO’s establishment, many people don’t know that he also helped to establish many other Indian institutions of repute. These include the Indian Institute of Management Ahmedabad (IIMA) and Nehru Foundation for Development.
11. Salim Ali
Born in Mumbai on November 12, 1896, Salim Moizuddin Abdul Ali was an ornithologist, naturalist, and naturalist. Salim Ali was one of the first Indians who conducted systematic bird surveys in India. His bird books were a major contribution to the development of ornithology within the sub-continent.
The Bombay Natural History Society was founded by the Birdman of India in 1947. He used his personal influence and social connections to secure government support. In 1976, he was presented with India’s second highest civil honour, the Padma Vibhushan.
12. Har Gobind Khorana
Khorana, an Indian-American biochemist, was born in Raipur, West Punjab (now Pakistan) on January 9, 1922. He shared the 1968 Nobel Prize for Physiology or Medicine. His research helped to demonstrate how the nucleotides within nucleic acid, which carry genetic codes of the cells, controls the cell’s synthesis.
Khorana was the first person to create an artificial gene in a live cell in 1970. His research was the basis for much of the subsequent research in gene therapy and biotechnology.
Many people are unaware that the Khorana Program was created by the University of Wisconsin-Madison and the Government of India (DBT Department of Biotechnology) in 2007. The Khorana Program’s mission is to create a seamless network of scientists, industrialists and social entrepreneurs from India and the United States. Khorana, a natural cause of death, died on November 9, 2011, at the age of just 89.
13. Birbal Sahni
Sahni, an Indian paleobotanist and fossil hunter, was born in West Punjab on November 14, 1891. He was also an archaeologist and a geologist. His greatest contribution was in the study of Indian plants in their historical context.
In 1936, he was elected Fellow of the Royal Society of London (FRS), the highest British scientific honor. This award was the first to an Indian botanist.
He was the founder of The Paleobotanical Society, which created the Institute of Palaeobotany in September 1946. It initially operated at the Botany Department of Lucknow University. Sahni, who suffered from a heart attack, died on April 10, 1949.
14. APJ Abdul Kalam
Born on October 15, 1931, Avul Pakir Jainulabdeen Ab Abdul Kalam is an Indian scientist who was an Aerospace engineer for Defence Research and Development Organisations (DRDO and Indian Space Research Organisations (ISRO).
Kalam began his career designing small helicopters for the Indian Army. Kalam was also a member of the INCOSPAR Committee under Vikram Sarabhai (the renowned space scientist). Kalam was then transferred to Indian Space Research Organization (ISRO), where he was project director for India’s first indigenous Satellite Launch Vehicle. (SLV-III). The Rohini satellite was successfully launched into orbit near Earth’s orbit on July 1980.
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Scientist Information – From 2002 to 2007, he was also the 11th President. In his book India 2020, Kalam suggested plans to make India a developed country by 2020. Kalam has been awarded many prestigious awards, including Bharat Ratna (India’s highest civilian honor). Kalam is well-known for his love of children. Did you know that he had set a goal to meet 100,000 students within the two years following his resignation as a scientific adviser in 1999. May he inspire millions more.
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