Hagia Sophia, 532–37 – Learn Islam

Situated in the coronary heart of Istanbul, Hagia Sophia (Turkish: Aya Sofya), that means ‘Divine Wisdom’, was in the beginning constructed as an Eastern Orthodox cathedral. It turned into later transformed right into a mosque while the metropolis become conquered by Sultan Mehmed II in 1453 CE. It remained a mosque till 1931 when it became became a museum.In July 2020 Hagia Sophia modified returned into a mosque.

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History of Hagia Sophia

  • For almost one thousand years, Hagia Sophia (Turkish: Aya Sofya), was the biggest enclosed area within the world and regarded as an engineering surprise. It turned into designed to impress the power and wealth of the Byzantine emperors upon their own topics and touring foreign dignitaries alike.
  • Hagia Sophia is the third church of this call to face at the web page. The first, a wood basilica built in 360 CE, turned into completely destroyed during a insurrection. The 2nd, a grand marble structure of which a few fragments continue to be, changed into erected beneath Theodosius II in 415 CE. Like it’s predecessor, this too become razed to the ground, inside the Nika Revolt of 532 CE.
  • The impressive building seen nowadays turned into commissioned inside the sixth century by way of Emperor Justinian. He became decided his creation would exceed in size and splendour the ‘Temple of Solomon’ in Jerusalem. Work started out in 532 CE and the constructing become inaugurated in 537 CE. The building turned into therefore gift in the course of the life of the Prophet Muhammad (ﷺ).
  • In 558 CE, part of the outstanding dome collapsed in an earthquake. During reconstruction the height of the external buttresses on the door turned into extended, and a number of the windows blocked, ensuing in an indoors plenty gloomier than at the start meant. The dome collapsed once more in 989 CE and turned into rebuilt by means of an Armenian architect. The worst desecration, however, turned into in 1204 CE, while it become ransacked via Catholic soldiers for the duration of the Fourth Crusade. Mules were delivered in to assist deliver off silver and gilt carving and a prostitute changed into seated at the throne of the patriarch.
  • In 1452 CE, the Byzantine Church reluctantly regular union with the Catholics within the hope that Western powers might come to the resource of Constantinople towards the Turks. In 1453 CE, those who said that they would rather see ‘the turban of the Turk than the hat of a cardinal inside the streets of Constantinople’ got their way when the metropolis changed into captured. Sultan Mehmet the Conqueror (Muhammad al-Fatih) rode to the church of Aya Sofya and stopped his troops looting the holy buildings. He then had it cleared of relics and stated his first prayer on the subsequent Friday. The former bastion of the Byzantine Christian Empire became now a mosque.
  • In 1935, the constructing became transformed right into a museum by means of Mustafa Kemal Ataturk, the founding father of the Republic of Turkey. The prayer carpets had been removed and the white plaster covering Christian technology mosaics have been cleared. Use of the complicated as an area of worship (either by means of Muslims or Christians) have become prohibited. However, since 2006 the Turkish government has allowed using a small room in the complex as an area for prayer for Muslim and Christian museum staff. In July 2016, the adhan (name of prayer) became broadcast from its minarets during Ramadhan, the primary time the adhan became called in eighty five years.
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Emperor Justinian appointed the architects Anthemius of Tralles and Isidore of Miletus realize his dream, to create a constructing of a kind and scale unknown inside the Byzantine international. The large thirty-one-metre-diameter dome, which appears to hover over a apparently empty space in place of being supported with the aid of stable walls, turned into unparalleled.

Numerous marble pieces and columns of various styles and sizes courting lower back to greater historical instances were introduced in from ruins everywhere in the empire and used in the constructing. There are many stories about the beginning of these substances, mainly the columns, but none of these may be taken critically.

Despite its uniqueness and elegance, the building had many structural troubles and parts of it’d disintegrate. This necessitated expensive upkeep which supposed over the years renovation paintings would now not be accomplished ensuing in a dilapidated kingdom.

  • Extensive strengthening work changed into done in the sixteenth century beneath the Turks by the famous Ottoman architect Mimar Sinan. He additionally erected two big minarets on the western side of the constructing to complement different minarets that have been constructed underneath the guideline of Bayezid II. A golden crescent turned into mounted on pinnacle of the dome.
  • More recovery paintings changed into completed in 1739 CE underneath Sultan Murad I. In addition, a madressa (Quran college), soup kitchen, library and ablution fountain have been introduced to the complicated.


Over the centuries, the Hagia Sophia turned into embellished with mosaics depicting Jesus, the Virgin Mary, saints and emperors or empresses. During the Fourth Crusade in 1204 CE, many of those mosaics were removed and shipped to Venice.

After the Ottoman occupation, closing mosaics have been whitewashed or plastered, as the church turned into converted right into a mosque. Extensive restorations had been executed on the mosaics inside the mid-nineteenth century through the Swiss Fossati brothers, however because of Muslim sensitivities the mosaics have been later protected another time. Some of the mosaics were recovered and restored since the building become became a museum.

  • The church apse was made into a mihrab (prayer area of interest dealing with Makkah) as a part of its conversion right into a mosque with the aid of the Ottoman Turks. Sulayman the Magnificent set up big candlesticks on both aspect of the mihrab which were delivered from his conquest of Hungary.
  • The massive, circular calligraphy discs seen above were established as a part of the recovery work carried out by way of the Fossati brothers inside the mid-19th century. Inscribed on them are the names of Allah, Muhammad (ﷺ), the primary four caliphs Abu Bakr, Umar, Uthman and Ali, and the 2 grandchildren of the Prophet, Hassan and Hussain (رضي الله عنهم).
  • Over the beyond few years there were numerous campaigns calling for the Hagia Sophia to be converted again to a mosque. Turkish president, Recep Tayyip Erdoğan, recited the Quran in the Hagia Sophia in 2018. He committed the prayer to the souls of all who left us this paintings as inheritance, especially Istanbul’s conqueror“.

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Conversion of Hagia Sophia back into a mosque

  • In July 2020, Erdoğan announced that Hagia Sophia can be changed lower back right into a mosque. This changed into following a court docket ruling that found its conversion right into a museum was illegal as it violated the need of its endower, Sultan Mehmet (Muhammad al-Fatih).
  • When Constantinople was conquered, the Sultan remunerated for the belongings along with his own money and the possession changed into given to Muslims as a permanent endowment. A replica of the identify deeds is below.

Muslims study inside the Qur’an: He is the Lord of the heavens and the Earth and all that is in between them. So worship Him and be affected person in His worship; do you recognize any identical to Him?) (Maryam 19:65) Now one of the contenders for the title of the New Seven Wonders of the World, Hagia Sophia reminds anybody of faith that they have lots in commonplace with one another.

Rather than dividing human beings of faith, it certainly brings them collectively to peer that it’s miles while they may be together that they’re strong. Religious people take consolation from Hagia Sophia, knowing that they want handiest to be patient in worship of Allah, for the reason that victory actually belongs to Him.

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