The Banu Haneefa Deputation
The Banu Haneefa deputation came to Madinah to meet the Prophet (PBUH). It was due to the efforts of Hazrat Thumama bin Uthaal that the message of Islam was introduced in that area. The members of this deputation accepted Islam after coming to Madinah. Musaylama the Liar (Musaylama Kazzaab) was also in the deputation. He started telling the people of Madinah that if he was nominated as the Prophet’s deputy to take over after him, he would accept Islam. When the Prophet (PBUH) heard about it, he pointed at an ordinary stick of date tree he was holding and said: “I would not accept Bai’ah from him even for this stick. If he will not accept Islam, Allah will destroy him. I have been informed of his ultimate end. I had a dream in which I saw that I had two bracelets of gold in my hands that looked unpleasant to me. In the dream itself I was guided by a Revelation (Wahi) that I should blow them away. I blew upon them and they disappeared. I understand that the two bracelets represent Musaylama of Yamama and ‘Anasi of San’a.” ( Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitabul Maghazi, Bab Wafd Bani Haneefa. )
The Tay Deputation
The deputation of the Banu Tay tribe came to Madinah and met the Prophet (PBUH). Its leader was Zaydul Khayl. The Prophet (PBUH) said about him, “Whoever from Arabia was praised in front of me, on meeting I found him less than that, except Zaydul Khayl.” The Prophet (pbuh) then changed his name to “Zaydul Khayr.” After obtaining necessary information, all the members of the deputation embraced Islam. (Ibn Hisham, 2:577.)
The deputation of the Al-Ash’ariya tribe also came from Yemen. Upon their arrival, the Prophet (PBUH) said: “The people of Yemen have come whose hearts are very soft and tender. Iman (The Islamic Faith) is of the people of Yemen and wisdom is of the people of Yemen. Humility is a quality of those who herd the goats, while pride and arrogance are found in those who herd camels and live in the East.” ( Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitabul Maghazi. Musnad Ahmad, 3:105-155 ) When this deputation entered Madinah, its members were reciting the following verse: “Tomorrow we will meet our friends, Muhammad (PBUH) and his Companions.”
The Azd deputation
This deputation consisted of seven members. When the Prophet (PBUH) saw them, he showed a liking for their appearance and asked, “Who are you people?” They replied, “We are Mo`min (true believers).” The Prophet (PBUH) said, “A claim has a reality behind it. What is the reality of your word and Iman (Faith)?” They replied, “We possess fifteen qualities. Five are those which we heard from your messengers, the other five are such which you commanded to put into practice, and the rest five are those which we had been practicing from before.” Then they explained these things in this way: “The five things that your preachers asked us to testify are these: Faith in Allah, angels, Allah’s books, Allah’s prophets, and life after death. “The five things we were instructed to follow are these: To say:
(There’s no deity worthy of worship, but Allah); to establish Salah five times a day; to pay Zakah (poordue); to fast in the month of Ramadan; and to perform Hajj, if one has necessary resources.
“The five things that we already knew are these: To thank Allah when we are blessed with sufficient means, to remain patient when faced with an affliction, to remain content with the divine will, to remain steadfast when faced with a trial, and not to use abusive words even for the enemy.”
The Prophet (pbuh) commented, “Those who taught these things were wise and learned. Their wisdom reflects that they were perhaps the Prophets. Now I will teach you five more things so that the number comes to twenty.
- Don’t accumulate such things that you may not eat.
- Don’t construct a house in which you may not live.
- Don’t compete with others in things that you will have to leave tomorrow.
- Fear Allah, to Whom you have to return and present yourself.
- Develop eagerness for things that may benefit you in the hereafter, where you will live forever.
These people remained firm on these teachings of the Prophet (PBUH). ( Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 672-73, Al-Asaba, 3: 151.)
Farwa bin ‘Amr was the governor of the northern part of Arabia which was under the control of Qustuntuniya (Constantinople). The capital of his state was Ma’aan. The adjacent area of Palestine (Falastine) was also in his jurisdiction. The Prophet (PBUH) sent him a letter inviting him to Islam. He accepted Islam. He also sent a messenger to the Prophet (PBUH) and sent with him an expensive mule, which was white. When the king of Qustuntuniya (Constantinople) learned about it, he called him back and tried to persuade him to renounce Islam. When Farwa refused, the king imprisoned him and later hanged him in Palestine near the ‘Afraa` Pond. Before being hanged, he recited the following verse: (Convey my message to the Muslim soldiers, That my head and bones are ready for sacrifice before the Lord.)
The Hamdaan Deputation
The Hamdan tribe resided in Yemen. Hazrat Khalid bin Waleed was sent to them to convey the message of Islam. He stayed among them for quite some time, but they did not accept Islam. Then the Prophet (PBUH) sent Hazrat ‘Ali Murtuza to preach Islam to them. At his invitation, as Allah willed, the whole tribe embraced Islam in one day. When the Prophet (PBUH) received a letter from Hazrat ‘Ali containing this information, he fell in prostration to thank Allah and prayed for the tribe in these words:
“May the people of Hamdaan live in peace.” (Sunan Bayhaqui, 2: 369, Sahih Al-Bukhari, Kitabul Maghazi.)
These were the same people who had accepted Islam at the hands of Hazrat ‘Ali and had come to Madinah to meet the Prophet (PBUH). Tariq bin ‘Abdullah narrated that once when he was standing in the Al-Majaaz Marketof Makkah, he noticed a person who was proclaiming:
“O people! Say la ilaha illallah (There is no deity worthy of worship except Allah); you will be successful)”
There then appeared another person right behind him who was calling aloud, “O People! Do not consider him truthful; he is a liar.”
Upon enquiry, Tariq was told that the first person was a member of the Bani Hashim tribe who thought that he was a Prophet, and the other one was his own uncle ‘Abdul ‘Uzza (Abu Lahab). Tariq said that once he went to Madinah with some persons from his tribe to buy dates from there. When they reached near the city, they stopped to change the dress. In the meantime a person approached them and after greeting them inquired about them. He had two old sheets over him. They told him that they were from Rabdha and had come to Madinah to buy dates. They had a red camel, which was reined. That person asked Tariq’s associates if they wanted to sell it. They told him that they would sell it for a certain amount of dates that they mentioned. The person did not bargain. He simply took the camel by its reins and walked away to the city.
“After he left, Tariq’s tribesmen realized that they had made a mistake to let a stranger take away their camel while they had not made any arrangement for collecting money from him. There was a lady with them, a relative of the chief of the tribe. She spoke to them confidently that she had seen the countenance of the person which shone like the full moon and that a person of such a countenance would never cheat. She promised the tribesmen that if that person did not appear, she would pay them the price of the camel. While they were still discussing the matter, there came a person from the city and told them that he was sent by the Prophet (PBUH) to pay them the price of the camel and an additional amount of dates to host them. They ate well and found the dates for the price of the camel full in measure. When they entered the city, they saw that the same person was delivering a sermon from the pulpit of the Masjid. Tariq said that he heard the following words from him:
“O people! Give charity, for giving charity is better for you. The hand that gives is superior to the hand that receives. Give to your mother, father, sister, brother, then the close relatives, and then other relatives.” (Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 646-47. Imam Hakim has mentioned this narration in Mustadrik, Imam Zahabi has corrected it.)
The Najeeb Deputation
Thirteen persons from the Najeeb tribe came to Madinah to bring to the Prophet (PBUH) the Zakah on the property and animals of their people. The Prophet (PBUH) asked them to take back the Zakah and distribute it among the poor of their tribe. They said, “O Prophet of Allah! We have brought to you whatever was left after giving the needy in our tribe.” Hazrat Abu Bakr commented, “O Prophet of Allah! No deputation better than this has come here yet.” The Prophet (PBUH) said upon it: “Guidance is in the hands of Allah the Magnificent. When Allah wants to do a favor to a person, He opens his heart for Iman.” They asked the Prophet (PBUH) some questions; the Prophet (PBUH) dictated answers for them in writing. They were very eager to learn the Qur`an and Sunnah (Prophetic Traditions), and, so, the Prophet (PBUH) specially deputed Hazrat Bilal to stay with them and help.
The people of this deputation showed much restlessness for returning home. When they were asked about it, they said that they wished to reach their people as soon as possible so that they could inform them about the effulgence they had received from the sight of the Prophet (PBUH), the blessings of his words, and the other benefits they had received there. The Prophet (PBUH) gave them gifts and bade them farewelll. At the time of departure, the Prophet (PBUH) asked them if anyone from them was left behind. They replied in the affirmative and said that they had left behind a young man from their tribe to guard their belongings. The Prophet (PBUH) asked them to send him to the Prophet (PBUH). Upon arrival, the young man told the Prophet (PBUH) that as his tribesmen were generously treated by the Prophet (PBUH), he too wished to be obliged. The Prophet (PBUH) asked him what he wanted. He said, “My submission is different from that of my tribesmen, although I acknowledge that they have come here in the love of Islam and have also brought Zakah.” The Prophet (PBUH) wished to know what he wanted. He submitted, “I came from my home only with a desire to request you to pray for me that Allah forgives me, shows mercy to me, and blesses my heart with contentment.”
The Prophet (PBUH) prayed for him accordingly. In the tenth Hijri when the Prophet (PBUH) went for Hajj, the people of that tribe met him again. The Prophet (PBUH) inquired of them the welfare of that young man. They informed him, “O Prophet of Allah! We have not seen a person like him before and we have not heard of a contented person like him before. Even if the wealth of the whole world is being distributed in front of him, he would not throw a glance at it.” (Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 650-51, Ibn S’ad, 1: 323.)
The Bani S’ad Hazeem Deputation
When this deputation arrived, the Prophet (PBUH) was offering Salatul Janaza (The Burial Prayer) for a dead person. They did not join, thinking that they should not do anything before seeing the Prophet (PBUH). They, therefore, waited aside. After the Salah was over, the Prophet (PBUH) called them and asked, “Are you not Muslims? Why did you not join the prayer for your dead brother?” They replied, “We thought that we were not entitled to do anything in Islam before offering Bai’ah (Pledge) to you.” The Prophet (PBUH) explained to them, “You had become Muslims since you had declared your faith in Islam.” At that time the Muslim youth whom they had deputed to guard their animals of ride also came there. They remarked about him,
“O Prophet of Allah! He is younger to us and is our attendant.” The Prophet (PBUH) replied, “A person younger in age is indeed an attendant to his elders. May Allah bless him.” This prayer was accepted in his favor in this way that he became the Imam of his people and the one most learned in the Qur`an. When this deputation returned to its people, the whole tribe embraced Islam. ( Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 652, Ibn S’ad, 1: 329.) The Bani Asad Deputation
This deputation comprised ten persons. Waabesa bin Ma’bad and Khuwaylad were with them. They came to the Prophet (PBUH) while he was present in the Masjid with his Companions, and one of them said, “O Prophet of Allah! We testify that God is one, without a partner, and that you are His bondsman and Prophet. See O Prophet of Allah! We came to you ourselves. You did not send anyone to us.” Upon it the following verse of the Qur`an was revealed:
“They regard as favor to you (O Muhammad, (pbuh)) that they have embraced Islam. Say: ‘Count not your Islam as a favor to me. Nay, but Allah has conferred a favor upon you that He has guided you to the Faith if you indeed are true” [Al-Hujurat, 49: 17].
Then those people inquired how it was to take an omen from the animal calls or such other things. The Prophet (PBUH forbade them from such things. Then they inquired about the practice of drawing lines and its validity. The Prophet (PBUH) told them, “A Prophet had taught it to his people. If someone has authentic information about it (i.e. what that Prophet had taught about it), it is, indeed, true knowledge. (Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 654, Ibn S’ad, 1: 292.)
The Bahra’ Deputation
When this deputation reached Madinah, it stopped in front of the house of Hazrat Miqdad and got down from their camels there. Hazrat Miqdad asked his family to prepare food for them, then went to the guests to welcome them, and brought them home. The family served the guests the food called Hays which is prepared with Sattu and dates cooked in ghee; sometimes fat is also added. From the same dish he sent some amount of food to the Prophet (PBUH). The Prophet (PBUH) ate a little from it and returned the bowl. Hazrat Miqdad put the same bowl with the food left in it in front of the guests both times, lunch and dinner, for several days. They ate to their satisfaction from it, but the amount of food did not decrease. One day the guests inquired Hazrat Miqdad how he could afford to serve them such good and delicious dish both times every day, whereupon he explained to them: “This is all due to the blessings of the Prophet (pbuh). This food has been touched by his fingers.” Hearing it, all of them said in faith, “Truly, he is the Prophet (pbuh) of Allah.” They stayed in Madinah for some more time, learned the Qur`an and the tenets of Islam, and then returned home. ( Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 655-56, Ibn S’ad, 1: 331.)
The Howlaan Deputation
They were ten people who came to meet the Prophet (pbuh) in the tenth Hijri. They told the Prophet (PBUH) that they also represented their tribesmen whom they had left behind. They said, “We bear faith in God and His Prophet and have come to you covering such a long distance and profess that we feel that Allah and His Prophet have this way shown kindness and favor to us. We have come here just to meet you.” The Prophet (PBUH) replied,
“He who came to meet me at Madinah will be my neighbor on the Day of Judgment.”
He then inquired of them about ‘Amm Anas, an idol which that tribe used to worship. The members of the deputation replied, “By the grace of Allah, your teaching has been adopted in place of the worship of that idol. There are only a few old men and women who still worship it. Now we will demolish it as soon as we return from here. We lived under misguidance and evil for long.”
The Prophet (PBUH) asked them, “Tell me about any incident that took place there.” They narrated, “O Prophet of Allah! Once we gathered a hundred bulls and slaughtered them the same day in the name of ‘Amm Anas and then left them there for the wild animals to eat, although we ourselves were very much in need of animals and their meat.” They also added, “We used to specify the share of ‘Amm Anas in our cattle and harvest. When a person gathered his agricultural produce, he specified its middle part for ‘Amm Anas, while one side of it was specified for God. If the harvest was hit by bad weather, we gave the share of God to ‘Amm Anas, but we did not ever give ‘Amm Anas’s share to God.”
The Prophet (PBUH) taught them necessary tenets of Islam and instructed them specifically in the following:
- To honor a promise;
- To pay back the trust;
- To treat the neighbor well;
- Not to oppress anyone. He also told them: “Tyranny will turn into darkness on the Day of Judgment.” (Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 662, Ibn S’ad 1: 324.)
The Makhaarib Deputation
These were ten persons who came as representatives of their tribe. Hazrat Bilal® was deputed to host them and he brought food to them both times. One day the Prophet (PBUH) allowed them to stay in his company between the Zuhr Salah and ‘Asr Salah. He looked at a person intently and said, “I have seen you before.” He replied, “Sure, O Prophet of Allah! It was in the market of ‘Ukkaaz where you used to call people to Islam in the early days of your preaching. You had seen me there and had spoken to me. I had responded very harshly and refused your invitation very indecently.” The Prophet (PBUH) remembered the incident. He then added, “O Prophet of Allah! That day none among my associates was severer in opposing you and farther from Islam than me. All my associates died on their traditional faith, but Allah kept me alive and, thanks to Him, He guided me to bear faith in you.” The Prophet (PBUH) commented, “The hearts of people are in the hands of Allah the Magnificent.” He requested the Prophet (PBUH) to seek Allah’s forgiveness for his life before Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) told him: “Islam obliterates all transgressions that a person has committed in the state of unbelief (Kufr).” ( Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 663, Ibn S’ad, 1: 299. )
The Bani ‘Abas Deputation
This deputation came to the Prophet (PBUH) four months before his death. They were the people of Najran and had already embraced Islam. They submitted to the Prophet (PBUH): “We have heard from the preachers of Islam that you teach that
“His Islam is not trustworthy who did not make Hijrah (Migration) for it.”
We are the owners of money, property, and cattle, which are the sources of our sustenance. But if our Islam is not acceptable without Hijrah, how will our money and property help us and what will be the use of the cattle? It is better then that we sell everything off and present ourselves to you.” The Prophet (pbuh) replied,
“Stay wherever you live and adopt Taqwa (fear of Allah and piety). Your deeds will not fetch lesser rewards in any way.” (Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 670, Ibn S’ad, 1: 295.)
The Ghamid Deputation
This deputation consisting of ten persons came to the Prophet (PBUH) in the tenth Hijri. They stopped outside Madinah, left a boy there to guard their belongings, and came to the Prophet (PBUH). As soon as the Prophet (PBUH) saw them, he asked them whom they had left behind to guard their luggage. They replied that it was a boy. The Prophet (PBUH) told them: “After you left the place, the boy fell asleep, and availing of the opportunity, a thief stole a watch from the luggage.” One member of the deputation spoke out, “O Prophet of Allah! That watch was mine.” The Prophet (PBUH) told him: “Don’t worry. The boy woke up soon after, ran after the thief, and caught hold of him. The stolen goods were recovered from him.” When the deputation returned to the place where they had left their things, the boy on guard narrated the story of theft with exactly the same details. All the members of the deputation accepted Islam. The Prophet (PBUH) deputed Hazrat Ubay bin Ka’ab® to teach them the Qur`an and the tenets of Islam. When they got ready to leave, they were given the tenets of Islam in writing. (Zadul Ma’ad, 3: 671, Ibn S’ad, 1: 345)
The Bani Fazara Deputation
When the Prophet (PBUH) returned from the Tabook expedition, a deputation of Bani Fazara came to meet him. There were fifteen persons in it. They professed Islam. They had come riding weak camels. When the Prophet (PBUH) inquired them about the condition of their villages, they thus spoke, “O Prophet of Allah! The villages have been hit by famine, the cattle have died, the gardens have dried up, and the children are starving. Pray that Allah may answer our prayers. You intercede with Allah for us and Allah intercedes with you on our behalf.” The Prophet (PBUH) replied indignantly, “Allah is above such assumptions, may you be disgraced!” I will intercede for you with Allah, but with whom will Allah intercede? He is the Lord, and there is none worthy of worship except Him. He is the greatest of all and He alone rules over the skies and the earth.” The Prophet (PBUH) then prayed for rain for them. In the following words:
Zadul Ma’ad, 3:653-654; Ibn Sa’ad, 1:297; the words of dua is also present in Sunan Abi Da’ud, Mustadrak Hakim and Sunan Bahiqi.)
“O Allah! Send down rain so that Your bondsmen and animals are satiated. Extend Your mercy. Bring the dead villages to life. Lord! We turn to You as ones in dire need. Send the rain that relieves, comforts, and reaches soon and is not delayed, benefits and does not harm, and satiates us to the full. O Allah! Bless us with rain by Your mercy, and strike us not with punishment, destruction, deluge, or annihilation. Lord! Bless us with sufficient rain and help us overcome our enemies.”
The Salaamaan Deputation
In this deputation there were seventeen people who accepted Islam after appearing before the Prophet (PBUH). Among them was one named Habeeb bin ‘Amr. He asked the Prophet (PBUH) which deed was the best? The Prophet (PBUH) replied, “To offer Salah on time.” They submitted, “The rain has not come down in our area yet. Pray for us.” The Prophet (PBUH) prayed for them in these words: “O Allah! Bless their area with rain.” Habeeb requested him, “O Prophet of Allah! Lift your auspicious hands and then supplicate.” The Prophet (PBUH) smiled and then prayed for them by lifting his hands. When the deputation returned from Madinah, they were told that rain had poured down there the same day that the Prophet PBUH) had prayed for them. (Rahmatullil ‘Aalameen, 1: 183, reference Zadul Ma’ad.)
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