What Is an Orbit? – ‪Gravity and Orbits‬

Orbit-1.jpg Every 90 minutes, the International Space Station circles Earth.

Perihelion is the point at which a planet is closest to the sun. Aphelion refers to the furthest point.NOAA orbit-2.jpg, NOAA orbit-2.jpg, NOAA orbit-2The Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter travels around the moon, which travels around the Earth, which travels around the sun.

The NASA Knows! (Grades 5-8) series includes this article.

An orbit is the route that one object in space follows around another object on a regular, repeated basis. A satellite is a spacecraft that is in orbit. A natural satellite, such as the Earth or the moon, can Exit. There are moons around many planets. The International Space Station, for example, is a man made satellite. The sun is orbited by planets, comets, asteroids, and other solar system objects.The majority of the objects circling the sun travel along or near a hypothetical flat surface.

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What Is the Form of an Orbit?

 Orbits come in a variety of forms.All orbits are elliptical, which means they are shaped like   an ellipse.The orbits of the planets are approximately round.

Comets’ orbits are shaped differently.They are “squashed,” or very odd.They resemble narrow ellipses rather than circles. Satellites orbiting the Earth, including the moon, do not always maintain the same distance from the planet.They are sometimes closer, and sometimes they are farther away.Perigee refers to a satellite’s closest approach to Earth.

The apogee is the furthest point.

Perihelion is the point in a planet’s orbit closest to the sun.Aphelion refers to the furthest point The Northern Hemisphere’s summer is when the Earth reaches its aphelion.The period of a satellite is the amount of time it takes to complete one full orbit.Earth, for example, has an orbital path of one year. The inclination is the angle formed by the orbital plane in relation to the equator of the Earth.

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What Causes Objects to Stay in Orbit?

Unless anything pushes or pulls on it, an object in motion will continue in motion. Newton’s first law of motion is the name given to this proposition. Without gravity, an Earth-orbiting satellite would go in a straight path into space. It gets dragged back to Earth by gravity.

The drag of gravity pushing the satellite back is always at odds with the satellite’s desire to travel in a straight line, or momentum. For an orbit to occur, the momentum of an object and the force of gravity must be balanced. If an object’s forward velocity is too high, it will race past and not enter orbit. If the object’s momentum is insufficient, it will be pushed down and crash. When these pressures are equal, the item is continually descending toward the planet, but it never strikes it because it is travelling sideways quickly enough. The speed required to stay in orbit is known as orbital velocity.

The orbital velocity is around 17,000 miles per hour at a height of 150 miles (242 kilometres) above Earth.Higher orbiting satellites have slower orbital velocity. Where Do Satellites Circumnavigate the Earth?Low Earth orbit, or LEO, is where the International Space Station is located.

The first 100 to 200 miles (161 to 322 kilometres) of space are known as LEO.LEO is the simplest orbit to enter and maintain.In LEO, a full orbit takes around 90 minutes.

Geosynchronous Earth orbit, or GEO, refers to satellites that remain over a certain place on Earth.These satellites circle Earth at a height of around 23,000 miles (37,015 kilometres) above the equator, completing one rotation every 24 hours.Satellites destined for GEO begin their journey in an elliptical orbit with an apogee of 37,015 kilometres.

The orbit is then made circular by firing the rocket engines at apogee. Geostationary orbits are sometimes known as geosynchronous orbits. A polar orbit is maintained by any spacecraft having an orbital route that passes over or near the poles. Low Earth orbits are common in polar orbits.

The whole surface of the Earth eventually passes beneath a polar orbiting satellite. When a satellite circles Earth, its path intersects the equator at an angle.The inclination is the name given to this angle.A satellite with a zero-degree orbital inclination orbits straight to the equator.The inclination of a satellite in polar orbit is 90 degrees.

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Important Phrases

A flattened circle or oval is an ellipse. An imagined, massive flat plate is containing the orbit of an Earth satellite. Earth’s orbital plane goes through its centre. The mass of an item multiplied by its velocity is called momentum.

Parallel: extending in the same direction, equidistant everywhere, and not intersecting


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