History of Hijrah: Tracing the Migration For Peace and Justice Through Time

Tracing the Migration For Peace and Justice Through Time – After Muhammad had been preaching publicly for over a decade, opposition to his preaching reached an unending level that in fear for their security, he took a few of his followers to Ethiopia and the Christian ruler offered protection to them. The legacy of which is loved by Muslims for a long time.

However, at Mecca the persecution increased. His followers were slandered and abused. They were even brutally beaten. Then, finally, Muhammad sent seventy of his followers away to the northern city of Yathrib and later renamed Medina (“The city”). Later, in the autumn of 622, he became aware about a plot to kill him, and along together with his most trusted friend, Abu Bakr al-Siddiq, set off to join the Emigrants.

Within Mecca the plotters showed up at Muhammad’s house to discover the cousin of his, Ali was taking his place in the his bed. In fury they Meccans placed the price for Muhammad’s head and began to pursue him. Muhammad as well as Abu Bakr, however, were hiding in a cave.

There, as they sought refuge from their attackers the spider created a web that spanned inside the cave’s narrow mouth. As they realized that the web was intact then the Meccans left while Muhammad as well as Abu Bakr walked towards Medina and were greeted with joy by a crowd of Medinans as well together with their fellow Meccans who had travelled ahead to make preparations for the journey.

It was an event known as the Hijrah which was anglicized as Hegira typically however, it is translating as “Flight” that is the source from which the Muslim time is believed to have been. In reality it was the Hijrah wasn’t a mere flight, but a meticulously planned and organized migration that signifies not only a change in time – the beginning of the Islamic period, but also for Muhammad and other Muslims an entirely new way of living. 

From then on, the guiding concept for the group was never just blood kinship, but the larger brotherhood for all Muslims. The men who traveled with Muhammad during the Hijrah were known as the Muhajirun which means “those who made their way to the Hijrah” as well as the “Emigrants” – whereas those from Medina who converted to Muslims were known as”the Ansar as well as “Helpers.”

Muhammad was well-aware of the current situation in Medina. Prior to the Hijrah the city sent the envoys to Mecca seeking Muhammad to settle a conflict between two tribes. The information they received and heard impressed them and they had requested Muhammad to establish himself in Medina. 

Following the Hijrah Muhammad’s remarkable qualities amazed Medina Medinans that the tribes of rival groups and allies were forced to close the ranks. On march 15, 624 Muhammad and his followers took up arms to repress the pagans of Mecca.

The battle that occurred close to Badr today, a small town located southwest of Medina it had a number of significant consequences. First the Muslim forces, outnumbered by three to one, defeated the Meccans. Second, the discipline shown by the Muslims made clear to the Meccans maybe at first the capabilities of the man they exiled out of their city. 

Thirdly one of the tribes who had pledged assistance to the Muslims during the Battle of Badr, but was then hesitant when the fighting began and were exiled from Medina within a month of the conflict. 

The tribes that declared themselves to be supporters with the Muslims however, adamantly opposed to them were accordingly warned that membership in the community was a condition to support them in totality.

Then, a year after A year later, the Meccans attacked back. With an army of 3000 soldiers, they confronted with the Muslims at Uhud the ridge that was located near Medina. After a brief victory however, the Muslims were repelled and the Prophet was wounded. Because the Muslims were not totally defeated however, the Meccans with a force of ten thousand, fought Medina another time two years later however with different outcomes. 

In the Battle of the Trench, also called”the Battle of the Confederates, the Muslims achieved a major victory through the introduction of a new defensive strategy. To the west of Medina from which an attack was anticipated they made a trench that was too large to allow the Meccan Cavalry unit to get rid of without risking exposure to archers who were stationed behind earthworks that were on side of Medina side. After a failed siege, the Meccans were forced to withdraw. Then Medina was completely under the control by the Muslims.

The Constitution of Medina– where the clans that believed in Muhammad as the prophet of God made an alliance or federation, dates back to this time. It proved that the political sensitivity in the Muslim community was at an important stage and its members regarded themselves as a distinct community from other communities. 

The Constitution also outlined the role of non-Muslims as members of the community. Jews for instance were included in the community. they were considered dhimmis, which means, they were protected provided they complied with its law. 

This set the model for treatment given to subject peoples after the battles. Christians and Jews after paying an annual tax they were granted religious freedom and, while retaining their non-Muslim status were considered associate people of the Muslim state. 

This status was not granted to polytheists who could not be accepted in a religious community that believed in gods other than the One God.

Ibn Ishaq, one of the first biographers to write about Muhammad, states that it was during the time Muhammad wrote letters to the people who ruled the earth including the King of Persia as well as the Emperor of Byzantium as well as the Negus of Abyssinia and Governor Egypt as well as others – urging them to acquiesce to Islam. 

There is nothing more eloquently illustrating the faith of the tiny group, since its military strength, even after the battle at the Trench was still a mere fraction. But their confidence was not unfounded. 

Muhammad was able to build several alliances with the tribes that his early days with the Bedouins will have placed him wellin 628. the group of 15 hundred followers could request admission to Ka’bah in talks with Meccans.

It was a significant moment for the history of Muslims. A short time prior, Muhammad had to leave the city where he was born in fear for his life. Then he was viewed by his former foes as an individual self-proclaimed leader. In 629, he returned to Mecca and in the end defeated Mecca without bloodshed, and in the spirit of tolerance, which created a model for the future of conquers. 

He also destroyed the idols of the Ka’bah, putting an end to the pagan practices in the Ka’bah. In the same period, Muhammad won the allegiance of ‘Amr ibn al ‘As, who was the future conqueror over Egypt Khalid ibn al-Walid who was the upcoming “Sword of God,” both of who converted to Islam and were a part of Muhammad . Their conversion was particularly noteworthy due to the fact that these men were one of Muhammad’s most bitter adversaries just one year prior to.

In one way, the return of Muhammad in one sense, his return to Mecca was the final stage the mission he had undertaken. In the year 632, three years after his return his sudden illness struck him down with illness and, on the 8th June of the same year along with his third wife , ‘Aishah, in attendance his Messenger to God “died in the scorching heat at noon.”

The passing of Muhammad was a deeply grieving loss. For his followers, this modest guy from Mecca was much more than a cherished friend, much more than an accomplished administrator, much more than the adored leader who built a new state out of tribal conflicts. 

Muhammad became the model of the wisdom he given them from God and the Quran’s teachings. the Quran that over the centuries have been the guide for the thinking and actions of faith and behavior of thousands of people as well as women, and brought about a new era in the history of humanity. 

The fact that he died did not affect the vibrant society he established in Arabia and had no impact any way on his main purpose: to spread the Quran throughout the world. The way Abu Bakr described it was: “Whoever worshipped Muhammad , inform him that Muhammad has died. However, those who worshipped God is to be aware that God lives and does not die.”

Categories: PRAYER (Salat), ALMS (Zakat), SAWN (Fasting) HAJJ (Pilgrimage) & DUA (Supplications), Hadith and Tafseer, The Holy Quran, Quran Jaz 1- 114

Topics:  Ushr and Zakat, Hijab, Arabic Corner, Faith, Islamic History, Biography, Sirat ul Nabi PBUH,  Islamic Studies, Halal & Haram


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