An alphabetical list of the most notable mathematicians and contributors has been compiled. It is arranged by surname at the Famous Scientists site. Alhazen was a city in the Middle East, between c. 965 and c. 1040.

A generic method was developed to calculate the sum and volume of integral powers. Alhazen’s problem of light reflection from curving surfaces was also solved. Hasan Ibn al-Haytham (Latinized as Alhazen); full title Ab Al al al-asan. He was known as “the father of modern optics”. He was referred to as the “father” of modern optics for his contributions in optics and visual perception.

Kitab al-Manir was his greatest work. It was composed between 1011 and 1021. It is also available in Latin. He was a polymath who published on philosophy, religion, and medicine.

Ibn al-Haytham explained the first time that vision occurs when light reflects off an object and passes through the eye. He also demonstrated that image is controlled not by the eyes but the brain. Ibn al-Haytham, five centuries before Renaissance scientists were born, pioneered the idea that theories should be supported by repeatable processes and mathematical proof.

He was born in Basra and spent the majority of his adulthood in Cairo, the Fatimid capital. He made a living teaching nobility and writing treatises. After his birthplace, Ibn al-Haytham is sometimes referred to as al-Bar

Abu’l-Hasan Bayhaqi referred to Al-Haytham as “The Second Ptolemy”, while John Peckham referred to him as “The Physicsicist”. “Ibn al-Haytham was the first to create physical optics as we now know them.

**Archimedes lived between 287 BC & 212 BC.**

Many innovative mechanical devices were invented. Hydrostatics was established, pi was correctly computed, the law of exponents was discovered and new geometrical proofs were created.

**Charles Babbage**

Charles Babbage was born 1791, and died 1871. Charles Babbage is the inventor of the first general-purpose computer program. He died in 1871.

Babbage was also born in 1791. Michael Faraday was also conceived in this year. They were only one mile apart. Babbage’s family was wealthy, Faraday’s was from a poor background. They were motivated by hard work, a hunger for knowledge and London roots. Computers could do much more than answer questions. Babbage called it “The Analytical Engine”.

**Bernoulli, Daniel** – ** Mathematicians**

Daniel Bernoulli was a scientist who lived between 1700 and 1782. Daniel Bernoulli published his masterpiece Hydrodynamic in 1738. His father, however, was able to replicate it. The Bernoulli Effect describes how plane wings generate lift and how they function.

Daniel Bernoulli was a Dutch citizen. He was born in Groningen, on February 8, 1770. Johann Bernoulli and Dorothea Falkner were his parents. Mathematical was a passion of theirs. Daniel’s mother, Dorothea Falkner, was born to a well-known and wealthy family in Basel.

Johann Bernoulli, Daniel’s father, was also a Basel resident. He was a brilliant mathematician, skilled physician, and was one of the first to promote and master the new mathematics of Calculus. Johann was so well-known, he was known as the “Archimedes”, or “Archimedes” of his time.

Pressure is affected by the fluid’s speed of movement. James Clerk Maxwell was 100 years behind Bernoulli’s Kinetic Theory. He was also the first to define risk. This idea is still used in many fields, including economics, evolutionary biology and other sciences. With a father like Johann, it’s no surprise that Daniel was an expert at math.

Two of Daniel’s siblings were also great at math. Daniel learned mathematics from his father, not his father, but rather from his older brother Nicolaus. Jacob, Daniel’s older brother, was also a skilled mathematician. This shows that mathematics is a family trait.

**Brahmagupta** – ** Mathematicians**

Brahmagupta He lived from 597 to 668 AD. Brahmagupta was an exceptional character. Only one scientist was capable of discovering the properties of zero.

Brahmagupta was an Ancient Indian mathematician, astronomer, and physicist who lived between 597 and 668 A.D. He was born in Bhinmal (a city in northwest India), when he was just a child. His father’s surname Jisnugupta was his first name.

He was also an Astrologer. Brahmagupta was an Astrologer. However, he also studied mathematics. His contributions to mathematics are what made him famous today.

He wrote poetry, not scientific formulae. No matter how it is written, truth is truth. He was the one who discovered the formula to solve quadratic problems. Pi is the circumference divided by the diameter ratio of a circle. It is often taken to be 3. However, if you need precision, the square root 10 should be used. This is 0.66% more than the actual pi value.

**According to some, the Earth is closer to the sun than the moon.**

It was incorrect to claim that the Earth does not spin or orbit the sun. This could have been done to protect oneself. It would have been risky to question the religious beliefs of the Brahmins at the time. He devised a formula for calculating the area of any four-sided shape whose corners intersect with the circumference of a circle. This formula is Heron’s triangle formula. Brahmagupta states that 365 days take 6 hours, 12 minutes, and 9 seconds. Brahmagupta established rules for dealing with positive and negative numbers.

- When you put two negative integers together, you always get a negative number.
- Adding two numbers equals removing a negative from a positive.
- Multiplying negative numbers yields the same result as multiplying positive numbers.
- When you divide a positive number by a negative or vice versa, a negative number is created.

**Rene Descartes** – ** Mathematicians**

Rene Descartes was a French villager who was born in La Haye en Touraine on March 31, 1596. He was the son a wealthy, well-off family. Indret Loire is the current village name in his honour.

Joachim Descartes, Rene’s father, was a Brittany attorney. Jeanne Brochard, the daughter of Lieutenant-General de Poitiers, was Rene’s mother. Rene was their third son. Rene’s mother, the fourth child in their family, died one year after his birth.

Rene’s father was Rennes Court of Justice judge for six months. Rene’s home is located nearly 200 miles (300kms) away. Rene was born to his grandmother and great-uncle. Rene was just four years old when his dad divorced and moved permanently to Rennes.

Rene and his father had a close relationship, despite this. Rene had a chronic cough since birth and was severely ill. Rene was deemed unlikely to survive childhood by the doctors. A nurse who was his father’s assistant took care of Rene. Because Rene believed she saved his life, his nurse was awarded a lifetime pension.

**Education** –** Mathematicians**

Rene was finally deemed fit enough for school at the age of 10 or 11. Rene boarded at La Fleche (Anjou) Jesuit School. He was allowed to rise earlier because of his fragile health.

Rene was a La Fleche student for seven or eight years in logic, philosophy, and Latin. He also studied mathematics and physics in his final two years. Aristotle was almost entirely wrong in his understanding of physics. He was an inquisitive, curious child who couldn’t stop asking questions.

Rene was able to learn a lot about Galileo and his amazing discovery of Jupiter’s moons. Galileo’s most significant works, which overturned Aristotle’s physics, weren’t yet published. His problems with the Catholic Church did not end. Rene Descartes (18 years old) left La Fleche, 1614. Later, he recorded his thoughts.

**Euclid** –** Mathematicians**

Introduction to Euclid’s Life: We don’t know much about Euclid’s childhood and are not sure of his appearance. He was most likely born in 325 BC. Alexander built his metropolis at the confluence of the Nile River and the Mediterranean Sea.

Euclid’s Elements is the masterwork Euclid’s Elements. It has had a profound impact on the intellectual growth of our species. It was influential on archaic Greeks Archimedes and Persians such as Omar Khayyam. It also influenced hundreds, including Galileo Galilei and Nicolaus Copernicus.

Euclid combined the mathematical arguments of Eudoxus and Pythagoreans to create a work of exceptional intellectual power. Euclid was not concerned with everyday math problems such as how many tiles were required to cover a roof. His mission was to find eternal and universal truths. He was permitted to use only straight edges, but not a compasse.

Euclid was able to deduce from some obvious concepts, such as the fact all right-angles are equal. He also proved more complicated mathematical theorems and placed them in the Elements 13 book. The Elements are divided into three categories: number theory and two-dimensional geometry. This incredible proof proves that there are infinite prime numbers.

It also contains Euclid’s first nontrivial mathematical algorithm to calculate the greatest common divider between two numbers. This algorithm may have been created by Pythagoras’ students.

https://www.philadelphia.edu.jo/library/directors-message-library