Math Standards for 3rd Grade Free PDF Download .The focus of Grade 3 instruction should be on four areas: (1) Understanding multiplication and Division and Strategies for Multiplication and Division within 100; (2) Understanding fractions, particularly unit fractions (fractions without numerator 1); (3) Understanding the structure of rectangular arrays; (4) Describe and Analyze Two-dimensional Shapes

Through activities and problems that involve equal-sized groups, arrays and area models, students can learn the meanings and implications of multiplication and division of whole numbers. Multiplication refers to finding an unknown product and division to find an unknown factor.

Division can be required in situations involving equal-sized groups. It may involve finding the unknown number or size of the groups. Students learn how to use the properties of operations to calculate whole number products. They then develop sophisticated strategies to solve multiplication or division problems that involve single-digit factors. Students will learn how multiplication and division relate by comparing different solutions.

Beginning with unit fractions, students learn how fractions work. Students see fractions as being constructed from unit fractions. They use visual fraction models and fractions to represent different parts of a larger whole. Students know that the fractional parts are proportional to the whole.

A small bucket might contain 1/2 the paint, while a large bucket may have 1/3. However, 1/3 of a ribbon will be longer than 1/5 because the ribbon can be divided into three equal parts. The ribbons are also longer when they are divided into five equal parts. Students can use fractions to represent numbers equal or less than, greater than, and lesser than one. Students can solve fraction problems by using visual fraction models or strategies that rely on the noticing of equal numerators and denominators.

Area is an attribute of two-dimensional regions that students recognize. Students measure the area of a shape using the same-sized units of area that are required to cover it without overlaps or gaps.

A square with sides equal in length is the standard unit of measuring area. Rectangular arrays can be broken down into identical rows and columns by students. Students can decompose rectangles into rectangular arrays made up of squares. This allows them to connect area to multiplication and justifies using multiplication to calculate the area of a rectangle.

Two-dimensional shapes are described, analyzed, and compared by students. Students compare and classify two-dimensional shapes using their sides and angles. They also connect these to definitions of shapes. The fractions of shapes that students create are also used to help them understand geometry.