The Modern Chemists And Their Work – Quranmualim

Modern ChemistsAmedeo Avogadro is best known for his theory that equal volumes of various gases contain the same number of molecules when heated and compressed to the same pressure. Other scientists disagreed with his idea. It was only after his death that it was accepted. It’s now known as Avogadro’s law. Avogadro was also the first scientist to recognize that elements may exist as molecules rather than single atoms.

Contributions of Avogadro to Science

Scientists’ understanding of the particles we now name atoms and molecules was limited and frequently inaccurate in the early 1800s.Avogadro was fascinated by the behavior of fundamental particles of matter and how they combine to generate chemical compounds.

In 1811, Avogadro published a study in the French journal Journal de Physique.According to him, the best explanation for Gay-findings Lussac’s of gas reactions is that all gases at the same temperature and pressure have the same amount of molecules in equal volumes.

Avogadro’s law was named after him. The reason that two liters of hydrogen gas react with a liter of oxygen gas to generate just two liters of gaseous water, according to Avogadro’s (right) theory, is because the volume reduces as the number of particles present drops.

As a result, the chemical reaction must be as follows:

2H2 (gas) + O2 (gas) → 2H20 (gas)

Three particles (two hydrogen molecules and one oxygen molecule) combine in this process to generate two water particles…or 200 particles combine with 100 to make 200 particles…Alternatively, 2 million particles react with 1 million particles to produce 2 million particles, and so on. After the process, when all of the hydrogen and oxygen gases have combined to form H20 gas, the volume of the gas reduces to two-thirds of its initial volume.

Avogadro was the first scientist to understand that elements may exist as molecules rather than individual atoms as a consequence of these findings. For example, he noticed that the oxygen we breathe is a molecule made up of two oxygen atoms bonded together.

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Robert Boyle

Modern Chemists – On January 25, 1627, Robert Boyle was born into an aristocratic family in Lismore Castle, in the little town of Lismore, Ireland. Richard Boyle, his father, travelled from England in 1588 with a little quantity of money.

He had amassed enormous money and became a large-scale landowner as a result of a good marriage and a high level of commercial acumen. Robert was the fourteenth child of his parents.He was taken to live with an impoverished Irish family when he was a child. His father believed that spending his children’s early years in this manner toughened them up. During this period, Robert began to stammer.

Science Contributions of Robert Boyle

Boyle came to Oxford, England, around 1654 or 1655, when he was 27/28 years old. He wanted to discover a scientifically fruitful atmosphere there. He hired space and established a laboratory. He never formally enrolled at the institution since he was so affluent that he didn’t require a salary or money for his research. In 1655, he had the good fortune to meet a young university student named Robert Hooke. Boyle was so pleased with Hooke’s mechanical ability that he hired him to work as his laboratory assistant for a fee.

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The Foundations of Modern Chemistry

Modern Chemists – Boyle’s The Sceptical Chemist, published in 1661, was a watershed moment in chemistry. Boyle began to separate chemistry from alchemy’s mysticism. He said that most alchemists were uninterested in the underlying causes of occurrences, preferring to go to Robert Boyle’s “sanctuary of the ignorant, occult characteristics.”1661, Robert Boyle, The Skeptical ChymistGalileo’s belief that the world might be comprehended via mathematics was at the heart of Boyle’s desire for chemistry. Boyle aspired to make chemistry a quantitative discipline.

William Lawrence Bragg was born in Adelaide, the capital of the British colony of South Australia, on March 31, 1890.William Henry Bragg, a Professor of Mathematics and Physics at the University of Adelaide, was his father. Gwendoline Todd, an outstanding watercolour artist, was his mother. Lawrence was the first of three children born to his parents. At the age of five, they enrolled him in a convent school, and he walked alone to and from school every day.

Contributions of Lawrence Bragg to Science

Bragg became a graduate student at J. J. Thomson’s laboratory at Cambridge after finishing his degree. He produced a significant discovery in 1912, when he was just 22 years old, that became known as Bragg’s law of X-ray diffraction. In the same year, Max von Laue of Munich discovered that X-rays may be diffracted by crystals and hence are waves, for which he was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1914.

Many scientists, including Lawrence Bragg’s father, thought X-rays were particles that couldn’t be diffracted until Laue’s breakthrough. When a wave, such as an X-ray, collides with an impediment or gap, diffraction occurs. The wave bends around the obstacles or gap’s corners. If the light source is bright, diffraction is more evident.

Hennig Brand was the first named individual in history to discover a chemical element when he found phosphorous.


Modern Chemists – Brand’s life is largely unknown. He was affiliated with the German harbor city of Hamburg, where he was born around 1630.Because Brand could not comprehend Latin, he was most likely not a college graduate. Brand is known to have done a number of things after the war before discovering phosphorous. He Despite having no recognized medical qualifications, he made money as a physician, referring to himself as Doctor and signing his name with M. D. Alchemical study was carried out. One of the most important abilities in alchemy and chemistry is glass making.

(At the time, there were no apparatus catalogues; glassware was constructed on the spot, generally by the alchemist or his helper.) Married a wealthy woman with a large dowry, allowing him to continue his alchemical study. Brand, like many alchemists, was wary about his techniques. Johann Daniel Kraft & Kunckel von Lowenstern, and subsequently Gottfried Leibniz, the famed mathematician and philosopher, compensated him to reveal his secret process of producing phosphorus. Phosphorus, according to Leibniz, may help him find the philosopher’s stone.

Alessandro Volta was born on February 18, 1745, in Como, Lombardy, Italy. His ancestors were aristocracy, but they were not affluent. He didn’t talk until he was four years old, and his family worried that he wasn’t very bright or even dumb. Fortunately, their concerns were unfounded. When Alessandro was seven years old, his father died, leaving behind outstanding obligations.

 Until he was twelve years old, Alessandro was schooled at home by his uncle. After that, he enrolled in a Jesuit boarding school. The Jesuit institution did not charge tuition, but it did put pressure on him to become a priest. His family objected, and after four years, he was dismissed from school. Volta then attended Benzie Seminary till he was eighteen years old.

Volta’s battery sparks a flurry of new scientific breakthroughs. Volta’s invention of the battery provided chemists with a potent new tool for studying compounds. The brilliance of his gadget was that it could be made by nearly anybody — silver and copper coinage, as well as other metals like iron, tin, and zinc, were widely available.

William Nicholson and Anthony Carlisle created and utilised a battery to decompose water into hydrogen and oxygen just weeks after Volta invented the battery. For the first time in history, olta’s battery provided a constant supply of electric current.Electric current powers all electrical gadgets. There would be no current technology without Volta’s innovation.Volta’s battery was a game-changing breakthrough in the evolution of our technological civilization.

J. J. Thomson’s discovery of the electron, the first subatomic particle, in 1897 catapulted science to new heights.He also discovered the first proof that stable elements may exist as isotopes and built the mass spectrometer, one of the most powerful instruments in analytical chemistry.

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Early Research Work

  • Pressure of a gas. Boyle’s Law
  • Thermal effusion
  • Sketch of a chemical theory
  • Theory of quantivalence
  • Valency of the various [chemical] elements

Thomson’s Most Significant Contributions to Science

The term ion was invented by Michael Faraday in 1834 to describe charged particles attracted to positively or negatively charged electrodes. So, at the time of Thomson’s discovery, it was already known that atoms are connected to electric charges in some way, and that atoms may exist in ionic forms with positive or negative charges.  

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Table salt, for example, is made up of ionized sodium and chlorine atoms. A sodium ion with a single positive charge is known as Na+  Cl– is a single-negative-charged chloride ion. The name electron was coined by George Johnstone Stoney in 1891 to denote the basic unit of electric charge. He did not, however, suggest that the electron be considered a separate particle. He thought it was the tiniest unit of charge that an ionized atom could have.

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