Islamic laws – “Islamic law” refers to the many legal systems that were and are still being developed in order to be in line with Islamic law. Islamic faith. Islamic legal systems function in a variety of and often discontinuous ways. The singular meaning of “Islamic law” shouldn’t be taken to mean that there is no legal polycentricity (multiple institutions and groups produce Islamic legal systems) or pluralism in law (within Islamic societies, since Islamic and non-Islamic legal systems exist).
An Introduction to Islamic Law
Islamic laws – There are important differences in the past and present between “Islamic law” and “Muslim legalities’ (the legal systems in use by Muslims). “Islamic law” is a reference to the juristic legal interpretations ( fiqh) of the divine legal system ( shari’ah) The term ‘Muslim legalities’ is a reference to the state laws (where Muslims are the majority or a minority) and/or the legal practice that are not governed by the state Muslim communities.
The primary distinction between these two categories is the fact that Islamic legal jurisprudence is created by an interpretive process that is anchored in canonical Islamic texts. In contrast, Muslim legalities are generated through an interpretive procedure rooted in a state-based or other legal system that could be or have been Islamic in addition to having an population which could be or not have the Muslim majority (Salaymeh 2014).
The section on the history of Islamic legal system in the article is focused on Arabia and other regions in the Near East, but Islamic law was widely spread in the early modern time. This article gives a brief outline of Islamic legal history, as well as key aspects of Islamic Jurisprudence.
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|Common Terms and Concepts Islamic laws –|
|Qur`an||The holy book of Islam which was given by Muh*ammad (d. 632)|
|sunnah||The normative precedents from the early Muslim community|
|h*adith||Reports of the acts and sayings of Muh*ammad as well as several of his early associates as collected in canonical collections|
|fiqh||Human understanding of or the interpretation of divine law|
|faqih||Jurist, person who interprets the divine law|
|us*ul al-fiqh||Principles for interpreting divine law|
|ijma’||Legal agreement of Companions and of Muslim community|
|ijtihad||Independent legal decision|
|Taqlid||In accordance with established legal precedents|
|fatwa (pl. fatawa)||A non-binding legal advice issued by an attorney (a particular kind of jurist licensed to give legal advice) often in response to a query|
|mufti||A jurisconsult is jurist who has the ability to formulate Islamic legal opinions|
|madhhab (pl. madhahib)||Around the 8th century, it was referred to as the jurists, students and judges who embraced the teachings of a certain prominent jurist. Later, it was referred to the doctrine of a specific legal school|
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Sharia is based on four major sources, as outlined below.
Islamic laws – Muslims adhere to that the Quran as the words spoken by Allah which He given to and transmitted to his prophet Muhammad. The sources for Islamic laws must have accordance with the Quran as the main resource for Islamic knowledge.
The Quran is, therefore, considered to be the ultimate authority in all issues related to Islamic legal and administration. The only exception is when Quran is not able to provide direct or detailed specific terms about a particular issue and subject that Muslims look to other source of Islamic law.
Islamic laws – The Sunnah is a collection of written documents that describe the practices or traditions from the time of Prophet Muhammad and many of them are recorded in books of Hadith literature. The books contain a wide range of information that he did, said or agreed upon in reference to his lifestyle and practices based on the rules and the words that are contained in the Quran.
Throughout his life his family and his companions watched his actions and shared with other people the exact details they observed in his actions and words–in other terms, the way he did his ablutions as well as how he performed prayers, and how he carried out many other rituals of worship.
It was also commonplace for people to inquire of prophets directly his rulings regarding various subjects. When he rendered a judgment on such issues the entire information was recorded and used as references in the future rulings of the law. Numerous issues pertaining to personal conduct, family and community relationships, political questions and so on. were dealt with at the time by the prophet, and were ruled by him and recorded. The Sunnah can therefore serve to clarify the specifics of what is generally stated in the Quran which makes its principles relevant to actual situations.
Islamic laws – In the event that Muslims haven’t been able to discover an explicit legal decision from or in the Quran or Sunnah, the consensus of the entire community is sought, or at the very least the agreement of those who are legal experts within the community. Islamic experts have defined “community” in different ways depending on the context such as Ijma al-ummah refers to a consensus of the entire community and ijma aimmah is an agreement by religious authorities. Muhammad was the Prophet. Muhammad once declared that his followers (i.e. that is, the Muslim community) would never be able to agree on a mistake.
Islamic laws – If something is in need of an order of the law however it hasn’t been clear in other sources, the judges could make use of analogy or reasoning as well as the law to establish the case law. This is usually the situation when a general principle is applied to new circumstances. For instance, when the latest research revealed that smoking tobacco can be harmful to health of humans, Islamic authorities deduced that the words of the Prophet Mohammad “Do not harm yourselves or others” could be an indication that smoking tobacco should be banned for Muslims.
Question and Answers
“Shari’a” is understood as God’s will for humanity. “Fiqh” is the body of law formulated by scholars trying to discover this will. Since fiqh is the product of interpretation by humans It is recognized as being faulty.
The primary sources for the shari’a are Qur’an along with the Sunnah (the words and actions from the prophet Muhammad). There are many additional principles that Muslim scholars apply to figure out the way God would like Muslims to live their lives.
Islamic law is a mixture of the diversity of opinions and divergences within certain parameters. Nowadays, some scholars are pursuing different interpretations of the fundamental sources of the shari’a in order to adapt to the changing demands of life in the contemporary world.
Islamic law requires very harsh punishments for certain crimes (the “hudud”). However, the punishments specified were in conjunction with extremely rigorous standards of proof and weren’t often enforced in the first place; they were only intended used as an effective preventative measure. In any event it’s not clear of British Muslims want such laws to be implemented in the UK.
Islamic law views women and men as morally equal before God, however their rights, obligations and privileges that God has given to them (particularly those pertaining to economics) aren’t the same. They are instead viewed as equally and in a way. Contrary to the beliefs about the role females have in Islam There are many Muslim women of today speak of their faith as one of women’s empowerment.
2. What are the primary sources?
The most significant distinction among Islamic laws and those of other systems like codified laws or even our common law in that legislators, or the source of law is God. The jurist, or scholar (faqih) is the principal interpreter of the law, and also produces fiqh. The jurist (there were many female jurists) is distinct from the judge (qadi) in the courthouse, who enforces the law. 
Fiqh governs appropriate behavior in two types of relationships that are between God and human beings particularly humanity’s sacred obligations, and between humans themselves. It separates human activities into activities that are compulsory and recommended, as well as those that are unrestricted, neutral or prohibited (haram).
It comes from the very beginning from the two primary sources of shari’a.
Islamic laws – * The Qur’an: Muslims believe that the Qur’an to be the exact message of God which was revealed to Prophet Muhammad by Gabriel (the angel). Gabriel (Jibril) during 23 years up to his death in 632 CE. The Qur’an’s verses contain discussions on God’s character (including the mercy, compassion and compassion of God and total unity the tawhid) and judgment,
Heaven and Hell; stories about the prophets’ lives prior Muhammad (including Jesus); as well as a set of guidelines for ethics and proper Muslim behaviour (for instance, in relation to matters that have that concern religious rituals as well as commercial transaction). The texts were either recorded or recorded in the memory of Muhammad’s followers. The text was later standardised into the form of a document published in the name of Caliph Uthman (644-56 CE).).
* The Sunnah The Sunnah is the name given to the words of deeds, acts and tacit approbations of Prophet Muhammad who was the receiver of God’s revelations, as told by his closest companions. The was the hadith (‘Traditions’) were transmitted verbally, and later written down. In the first centuries during the crusades of Islam, Muslim scholars devised methods for evaluating the relative quality among the many thousands of Hadith that were being circulated. The hadith that were deemed to be the most reliable are preserved in range of collections.
The early Muslim jurists soon realized their understanding of they needed to understand that the Qur’an and Sunnah had to be explained and understood. As the Muslim empire grew, the jurists faced legal issues that weren’t covered by the Qur’an or in the corpuses of Hadith (such such as for instance whether or not drug use was permissible within Islam). [44. Which was the God’s will for Muslim conduct in these circumstances?
Islamic laws – To answer thisquestion, the jurists of the early times created additional guidelines for the interpretation of the shari’a. If we concentrate on Sunni Islam, [55 the most important principles are Ijma (‘consensus which is understood as the agreement on a specific subject matter among Muhammad’s Companions and their successors, of scholars who are qualified or even as an all-inclusive consensus among Muslims) and Qiyas (extending the provisions of to the Qur’an (or Sunnah for a different scenario using analogy). There are also secondary principles that jurists can use, like the concept of maslaha, which refers to taking into account general good and the public interest.
The basis of all this is the most fundamental concept that is a central concept fiqh the concept of ijtihad (not not to be misunderstood with jihad or’striving’). [6It is Ijtihad refers to the method which a jurist utilizes the power of reason to come up with an answer to a legal issue that isn’t directly mentioned by the Qur’an or Sunnah. It is this power of individual rationality that allows Islamic legal system to become flexible and adaptable to the changing conditions.
As time passed, different jurists formulated what they perceived as the primary goals (maqasid) in the shari’a which is the spirit of the law. For instance, the famous Persian lawyer Abu Hamid al-Ghazali (d. 1111 CE) set out five objectives: the protection of one’s faith, intellect, soul as well as offspring / lineage and financial wealth. He said that any decision which protect these values can be considered to be in good faith for the benefit of society (as they don’t violate explicit stipulations of The Qur’an and Sunnah).
3. Are there spaces for change and diversity within Islamic law?
Islamic laws – If we consider fiqh to be the many interpretations and rulings made by human beings to discern God’s will. We are able to discern that Islamic law has an inherent ability to accommodate diversity and growth.
We can see this in the evolution of various school of thought. In the beginning of Islam there was a discord among various jurists over the proper way to interpret of the Qur’an as well as the Sunnah. This led to the development of different school (madhhab) in law were established across different regions, each with somewhat different opinions on the way God intended for Muslims to perform in any given circumstance.
In the case of Sunni Muslims, there are four law schools that are still in existence (Hanafi, Hanbali, Maliki Shafi’i, and Hanbali) and all of them can be considered to be orthodox. Although jurists differed among themselves on certain questions, they were all aware the fact that disagreement (ikthilaf) was normal and, in fact, legitimate as long as the core rules of Islam were adhered to.
For Muslims today, there’s more diversity in Islamic law than at any time in history. Jurists who are qualified and competent can make fatwas or expressions of opinions, regarding specific aspects that are relevant to Muslim life. A fatwa, however, only binds the person issuing it, and only on the people who have affixed themselves to him/her and reflects the fact that human-derived fiqh is inherently liable (though it is true that in the real world, certain experts may attempt to make their fatwa appear all-inclusive and binding).
Thus, Muslims especially those who are not from of countries with a majority Muslim population, are in not a requirement to follow the every fatwa issued by clergy. Additionally, when trying figure out how to behave in a difficult situation, many Muslims in Britain are now inclined to consult “Sheikh Google and choose from the vast array of fiqh interpretations available on the web, and also (or in lieu of) seeking out a real-life imam. Access to knowledge about religion is now becoming more accessible and globalized. In practice for a large number of Muslims the ultimate decision on what constitutes an Islamic lifestyle is up to them as individuals.
The other aspect of this democratization is a resurgence of ijtihad which is the practice of independent reasoning in order to come up with new interpretations of the shari’a. According to the tradition of Muslim account, in the early days of Islam Ijtihad was often performed by qualified jurists. However, after a short period of time they started to rely more much on their legal understandings from the time of the previous jurisprudence.
the gates of ijtihad were said to have shut, as Islamic law was believed to have been diluted. The colonial era was when Muslim reformers argued that in the event that European imperialism were to be destroyed Ijtihad and Islamic law must be restored to aid Muslims adapt to the changing circumstances.
Similar to this, certain jurists are now recognizing the need for a revival of Ijtihad. As technological and social changes are creating situations that were never experienced by Muslims and some believe it is time to create a new fiqh that addresses specifically the issues for Muslims in minority communities such as Britain.
4. What are the severe punishments for the most serious crimes?
Islamic laws – The Shari’a law, which we’ve witnessed is a broad spectrum of human behavior, far beyond the issues that we in the West consider to be “law”. However, it’s the realm of criminal law that is a source of the most controversy for non-Muslims.
Fiqh unterscheides between crimes that infringe the rights of human beings as well as those which violate the ‘rights that belong to God’. These are a distinct class of crimes known as’hudud’ which means ‘limit’, or “boundary”. They include adultery/fornication and falsely accusing someone of having an affair; drinking alcohol as well as a few kinds of theft; and armed robbery , also known as banditry. 
The punishments for hudud-related crimes that are outlined in both the Qur’an and Sunnah are harsh. If we take the penalties for infidelity or adultery (zina) to be an instance and the Qur’an states that those who commit the act must be slapped 100 times. Hadiths mention that if the person who is involved is single and not married, they should be also removed for a year and married couples and those who have committed adultery should be punished by stoning them to death.
The Scriptural penalties for these crimes (and indeed, in certain instances, even the condemnation of these acts) make people scream in horror today. But, there are a few crucial conditions that reduce the severity of these penalties:
* In the event of a violation to the fundamental rights granted by God An adult Muslim who commits one of these offenses is only legally accountable to hudud penalty when he or she is of well-informed and has the intention of engaging in the crime despite being aware that it is unlawful.
* In addition to setting strict punishments as well as imposing harsh punishments, it is also clear that the Qur’an and Sunnah require a very rigorous proof-based process before punishments are implemented. For instance in the case of adultery it is the Qur’an stipulates that there should be at least four witnesses who can verify the crime, and anyone who makes a claim against someone for adultery without these witnesses must be punished with a maximum of 80 lashes for slander.
Some scholars, such as Jonathan A.C. Brown, have suggested that early Muslim magistrates went to extreme measures to prevent the enactment of Hudud penalties, because they found doubts in the cases in hand, which could result in the fact there was a chance that the innocence of those defendant could not be assured.
This was a tenet that was based on various hadiths of prophets like Muhammad and his companions, for instance, one of which has been reported to have said “Ward away the hudud from the Muslims whenever you can. However, when you can come up with a solution for the accused, then let the person go. Because it is better for the authority to act in mercy rather than in the direction of punishment.”  In instances of sexual adultery for instance some jurists believed that if a person who admitted the act later did not retract their confession in the future, they were not able to endure the hudud penalty.
Many claimed that the fact that a woman was pregnant was not enough proof that adultery took place in the first instance. For example, when the woman’s husband was absent for a prolonged period the jurists argued (rather in a way, improbably) that her pregnancy could originate with her husband earlier in the years, but that it was not active until now. 
All in all it appears that the hudud were designed to be severe enough to deter Muslims from engaging in the crimes, yet with the standards of proof being high enough to ensure that the proclaimed punishments were not often applied. According to Jonathan Brown’s perspective the principle that guided the application of punishments of the hudud was “maximising mercy”. [10The hudud punishments were intended to be as severe as possible.
However this doesn’t mean those accused of these crime were free of charge. It simply meant that they may not have had to endure the savage Qur’anic and hadith-based punishments. They could have been subjected to other punishments imposed by judges who may have the discretion to decide on sanctions based on the specific circumstances in question. Based on the nature of the offense the punishments may be harsh. 
The caveats and the nuances of the use of the hudud penalties aren’t likely to change the minds of people in Britain in the present time regarding their use. However, it’s possible that the discussion about these issues isn’t really the point, as there is no evidence to suggest of evidence that British Muslims actually want to consider having such punishments used in the country.
Many believe that the rules were designed to fit particular historical circumstances and therefore aren’t appropriate for today’s very different world. A lot of people view the harsh punishments handed out in countries such as Saudi Arabia with disgust, saying that even though these regimes might claim to be following’shari’a however, they’re sinning against the principles of the shari’a, and infringing on the rights of people.
In the last few years, there have been numerous of studies of British Muslim attitudes. They show the fact that British Muslims overwhelmingly feel a significant sense of belonging to Britain. But when it comes to Muslim opinions on Islamic law The polling questions are typically inadequately written and sensationalized which means that we know very little about their real opinions, particularly on specific issues like the introduction of Hudud penalties. 
In the poll of 2010, 17 percent of Muslim respondents stated that they prefer the option to “Introduce Sharia law, that is traditional Islamic law, in all cases”; 19% opted of “Introduce Sharia law, but only if penalties do not contravene British law”; 20% of respondents said that they did not wish to see “sharia law” introduced; and 37% stated that they were unaware. The high percentage of respondents who didn’t know is significant. It could indicate anything from respondents believing that they were too easy to be answered adequately, to having given the subject little thought, or being confused or unsure about the topic.
However, we don’t know from this survey about what respondents really believed “Sharia law” to involve as well as their opinions on the Hudud. Six years later, another poll was conducted asking British Muslims in what degree do they believe in or against certain elements of law “perhaps related to civil law cases such as financial disputes, divorce or other family matters but which could also cover other aspects” which is the event that “Sharia law is introduced instead of British law?” 43% of respondents favored the idea with 22% against and 23% said “neither neither’, and 12% did not have any idea. The wording of this poll was more precisely than the one from 2010 but is too vague to reveal precisely what Muslims are thinking about the law of criminals within Islam. 
Since “shari’a’ is an expansive term that has multiple meanings When Muslims declare in a poll that they support shari’a’ it could mean many different things. It is likely that some of them are contemplating the return of laws that promote conservative social values. Others could mean specific modifications of English legal system of family, for instance legally recognized Islamic weddings which is a good option (see the following section).
Others could simply refer to the creation of a system of government that is fair and safeguards the rights of its citizens. Other people, like those who are not religious Muslims might not have anything specific in mind when they declare they “support shari’a,” other than a vague sense commitment to a belief system they believe is essential to their faith and community.
5. What is the role of women under Islamic law?
The role of women in the shari’a is a different subject that is the subject of heated discussion. Many non-Muslims think that women are placed in a position of subordination as evidenced by the famous assertion that the testimony of a woman is worth less than half of the testimony of a man.
Like the hudud, the truth is more complicated. The specific example of witness testimony is the subject of intense debate and conflict among contemporary Muslim scholars. The Qur’anic verse that is in the case of this question reads: “And if there are not two men [available], then [bring] a man and two women from those whom you accept as witnesses –
so that if one of the women errs, then the other can remind her.” 14 The verse deals with the creation of contracts for debts, i.e. commercial transactions. When one party “is of limited understanding” and is not able to comprehend the contract, that a guardian must sign the contract, instead, in front of the designated witnesses.
In the present there are some Muslim experts argue that it was unusual for women to take part in commercial transactions prior to Islam and the requirement for two female witnesses not meant to be a critique of their capacity to think, but rather an indication of their lack of knowledge in these issues, and one not being capable of supporting the other. Certain Muslims are therefore inclined to view the requirement as insignificant for a contemporary world with more educated women. 
In light of the stereotypes of oppression from non-Muslims and oppression, more and more Muslim women from the West and elsewhere are describing their religion, from its beginnings, as a source of female empowerment. This is evident in a number of new studies like those by Shelina Janmohamed  as well as Philip Lewis and Sadek Hamid.
 These women claim they believe that Prophet Muhammad raised women above their position in the pre-Islamic Arabia and that throughout the centuries Islam was a step ahead of other religions in regards to the rights of women as (unlike the case in Christian Europe prior to the end of the modern era) Muslim women were scripturally given the right to possess the property they owned, earn an income for a living and to inherit wealth , and to pursue higher education.
Women from the Muhammad family were integral to the evolution of Islam and even when it came to the canonization process of the Qur’an and the hadith. In Islam both genders are considered to be morally equal in the eyes of God, however they are regarded as having distinct, complimentary roles, rights, as well as duties (with motherhood being an especially revered role).
Additionally there are the majority of Muslims consider Islam as being more inclusive of women than Western culture that they believe is being a reduction of women to sexual objects, and less the tradition of their origins (if they belong to people of ethnic minority). Young Muslims especially are worried about distinguishing the “real Islam and the practices that are culturally influenced by their grandparents and parents.
They are often opposed to patriarchal views and behaviors, like the lack of churches in Britain to offer a space for women to worship, because they are merely ‘cultural’ without any place in the the religion in itself. Reformist jurists from all over the world, including women are offering fresh ways of understanding the Qur’an as well as hadiths to combat patriarchal aspects that are part of Islamic laws. 
Naturally, we have to be cautious here. It is not a good idea to say that all Muslim women view their faith through the lens of liberation is the same as declaring that all Muslims are oppressed. The concept of liberation could be a source of discontent for certain British Muslim women, particularly women of older age that may not agree with their grandchildren’s and children’s desire in discerning the difference between (‘patriarchal’) culture and the true religious belief. And despite the efforts of reformist jurists, all over the world , more conservative scholars continue to interpret the primary sources of shari’a according to ways that highlight a subservience gender role for women.
Furthermore, there are distinct distinctions between the rights of women and men in certain areas of the fiqh which contradict the Western belief that all people has the same rights. It is widely known that for instance, males can legally have up to 4 wives at once and women are allowed to have just one spouse at one at a time (though it is generally believed to be a limitation on more agressive polygamy that was prevalent in the pre-Islamic period of Arabia as men were being told to follow the Qur’an to be fair to multiple wives).
 Men are also granted the unilateral rights to end their marriage (the talaq) and women are able to start a divorce (khula) however, ultimately, the divorce must be negotiated on by the husband. This particular legal distinction in the law that led to creation in Britain of these controversial institutions called councils of the shari’a.