The basis of the most reliable and authentic sources discovered within the library of Sunni and Shi’a Ahlul Bayt (People in the House) from the Prophet is one of the two most important symbols of Islam after the passing of the prophet (S). There are many traditions in the libraries of both schools, which suggest that the Prophet (S) has been reaffirmed his commitment to the two most important aspects (al-Thaqalain) that are Ahlul-Bayt and the Qur’an to make sure that we do not leave him behind.
There is a belief it is believed that the Messenger of Allah has also revealed to us the two weights of Allah are interdependent and will remain in a relation until the Tag of Judgment. It is essential that when analyzing the meaning behind Qur’an along with it’s Sunnah that of The Prophet (S) that we look at those who are related to it, particularly Ahlul-Bayt.
The authenticity of Ahlul Bayt is therefore a major issue when you look at the above mentioned tradition of The Prophet (S) and as well as other beliefs that support the belief in Ahlul Bayt in the sole method of salvation. That means that anyone who believes in the false Ahlul-Bayt ( in actual fact! ) is more likely to fall into an unintentional trap.
Given the importance of this issue, and the importance of this matter it isn’t surprising to see how the people of the Shi’a are different with others Sunnis in this respect. In reality, it’s the case that Sunnis don’t have one single decision to make about who’s the member of the House of the Prophet. Most Sunnis have the opinion of the Ahlul-Bayts (S) is the Prophet (S)’s name. The Prophet (S) is:
* Fatimah al-Zahra (sa) (the daughter of the Messenger of Allah),
- Imam ‘Ali (as),
- Imam al-Hasan (as),
- Imam al-Husayn (as),
- “The Prophet’s Wives” (S)
Other Sunnis are also included as descendents from Muhammad to the list! Other Sunnis are considerate and have included all the relatives of Abbas (the Abbasid) as well as those who are related to Aqil as well as Ja’far (the two brothers of Imam Ali) on the list. It is important to keep in mind but that it is true there exist some prominent Sunni academics who do doubts that wives who received God’s favors during the time of Muhammad Muhammad are part of the Ahlul-Bayt. This is in keeping with Shi’a’s perspective.
The Shi’a Ahlul-Bayt (S) that is Prophet (S) includes only the following people:
- Fatimah al-Zahra (sa),
- Imam ‘Ali (as),
- Imam al-Hasan (as),
- Imam al-Husayn (as),
- Nine descendents of the Imam al-Husayn (as).
and, even and including and including and even including the Prophet (S) and even the prophet (S) and the Prophet (S) himself. There will be 14 people. Naturally, in the time the time of the Holy Prophet was in, there were only 5 (including those of Prophet) were alive, and the remainder weren’t yet born.
They also assert that the 14 are protected by Allah from imperfections which is why they are deserving of being honored with respect to with the Qur’an (the other symbol of Weight). It is a symbol) because They are also the sole ones who be fully aware of the Qur’anic significance of the verses.
In this discussion, we would like to explain why the Shi’a exclude the wives of the Prophet from Ahlul-Bayt, and also we will briefly discuss why Ahlul-Bayt are protected/infallible. (More specific details about the infallibility of Ahlul-Bayt is covered in Chapter 2.). The foundation of our proofs is
1. Qur’an,2. Traditional practices that are the authentic Sunni Collections3. Historical instances.
In the Holy Book of Allah mentions Ahlul-Bayt’s outstanding quality in the following verse that is identified by the title of “Purification Verse”(Ayah al-Tat’hir):
“Verily Allah intends to keep out from your all forms of filthiness o’ People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt) and cleanse you with the purest of ways”. (Qur’an The last verse in Verse 33:33.)
It is important to remember that “Rijs”in the above verse is a word that has the”al” as the “al-“at in the first place, making “universal . Thus “al-Rijs”means “EVERY sort of uncleanness”. Furthermore, at the conclusion in the passage Allah declares “and cleanse you to an absolute purification. “The phrase “perfect”comes from the significance of “Tat’hiran”. It is the sole time in the Qur’an that Allah stresses “PERFECT cleaning”.
In the above verse, Allah expresses his intention to make sure that Ahlul-Bayt stays completely pure, perfect and sin-free. Whatever Allah intends to accomplish will come true as the Qur’an itself shows (see 16:40).
Human beings are sin-free because there is no obligation to commit do sin. It is the responsibility of the individual to follow the orders from Allah and seek guidance from Allah to avoid sin, or disregard Allah’s commands and commit a sin.
Allah is an advisor, a motivator and a warner. Humanity is sinless and remains an individual, no doubt about that. There is a belief that as a human being, one must commit mistakes. The claim is not supported. The truth is that Human has the potential to make mistakes However, he doesn’t need to.
It is the mercy of Allah that draws His people towards Him, but does not force them to conform in any way. It is our choice to pursue this dream and not commit mistakes, or to abandon the way and commit mistakes. However, Allah has GUARANTEED to reveal is the Right Path and to provide an authentic and fulfilling life for those who seek it.
If anyone is upright person, whether man or woman and has been faithful to God and faithful, we will revive the pure life of them. (Qur’an 16:97)
If he abides by his obligations towards Allah, Allah will appoint the means of getting him out. (Qur’an 65:2)
It is important to remember that the line from Qur’an within the passage 33:33 which refers on the cleansing process in Ahlul-Bayt. It is within the center of verses which relate to wives of the Prophet (S) and this is the main reason why certain Sunnis contain wives of Prophet (S) in Ahlul Bayt.
The one that refers to Ahlul-Bayt (given in the previous paragraph) is different from the ones prior to and after it, with a distinct difference. The words preceding and following contain only females, which suggests that they are talking to wives of the Prophet (S). Contrary to the preceding passage, it uses only masculine gender , which is an obvious sign that the Qur’an has altered the demographics who it’s speaking to.
If you’re familiar with Qur’an in some way you are aware that sudden changes in address isn’t an unusual concept that’s been applied in numerous places within Qur’an. As an example, see in Qur’an:
“O Joseph! Also (O the wife of Aziz!) Ask forgiveness for your transgressions as you are accountable. “(Qur’an 12:29)
In the preceding verse, “O wife of Aziz”has been removed, while the mention of Joseph (as) appears to continue. The change in the address from male to female indicates that this verse was addressed to the wife Aziz instead of the Joseph (as) the Prophet. Joseph (as). Both phrases are in one verse. Also, notice the instant alteration in address from woman who was the wife of Aziz to Joseph and then back to her in the verses before verse 29 as well as within the verse.
If you are speaking the Arabic language, where a large group of women are addressed, the gender of women is used. However, if only one male is present in the group, it’s the masculine gender used instead. This is the reason why this passage from the Qur’an clearly indicates Allah is speaking of a different group as wives Muhammad who have masculine genders and the group includes males.
Based on the verse 33:33 as a whole however, we are unable to conclusively say the wives of prophets do not constitute members of the Ahlul-Bayt. This is supported through the genuine traditions included within the Sunnis from Sihah Sittah in which the Prophet revealed who Ahlul-Bayt were and by comparing the details of Ahlul-Bayt’s Qur’an verse with the wives’ actions of Prophets, as stated within Sihah Sittah to prove the contradiction.
What we can discover from the passage can be it is Allah is changing his name (which was only available to wives of Prophets prior to the beginning of the chapter) to the group of people which comprise males and may or may not include spouses of Prophet.
It is fascinating to note the truth that Sahih Muslim, as well as Sahih al-Tirmidhi as well and a few others, support the Shi’ite view as described earlier. The book Sahih Muslim it is found a chapter titled “Chapter of Virtues for the Companions”. In this chapter is the section referred to as “Section of the virtues of Ahlul-Bayt , the Prophet”. There is one Tradition in this section, and it is not an indication of females who served as wives of Muhammad (S). The tradition is referred to as “The Tradition of Cloak/Mantle”(Hadith al-Kisaa) and has the following format:
One day, the Prophet (S) was observed leaving afternoon, dressed in an black cloak that was encased (upper dress, long coat or dress) Al-Hasan ibn ‘Ali came, and the Prophet took him to his seat inside the Cloak. Al-Husayn was in the cloak and was allowed to get in. After that, Fatimah arrived and the Prophet ushered her inside the Cloak. Then came ‘Ali, and the Prophet came with his Cloak and also. The Prophet then stated: “Verily Allah intends to take away all sorts of filth, The People of the House (Ahlul-Bayt) and also to provide your body in an ideal manner (the final phrase from Verse 33:33).”
* Sahih Muslim Chapter of virtues of companions section on virtues of companions. Ahlul Bayt from the Prophet (S) edition 1980 edition publication. in Saudi Arabia, Arabic version, v4, p1883, Tradition #61.
Below can be this custom’s Arabic wording of the custom, as found in Sahih Muslim:
One can see how the Sahih Muslims affirms:
1. Imam Ali, Fatimah, al-Husayn, and al-Hasan comprise the Ahlul-Bayt,
2. The purification sentence in Qur’an (the last sentence of this verse 33:33) was shown to highlight how good these people however, not the wives who were prophet’s wives (S).
Muslim (the writer) did not include any other customs in this part (section of the virtues in the Ahlul-Bayt). If the author in Sahih Islamic believed that wives of Prophet Muhammad were mentioned in Ahlul-Bayt and he believed that they were mentioned, he might have spoken of myths regarding the wives mentioned in this section.
It is fascinating to learn it is Aisha an of the wives to the Prophet (S) was the main person who narrates this custom as well as an authentic witness to the fact of the fact that Ahluland Bayt are the people mentioned (i.e., Imam ‘Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan, and al-Husayn. May Allah’s blessings Allah be upon the whole group).
A alternative version from”the “Tradition of Cloak”is found in Sahih al-Tirmidhi. The story is told by Umar Ibn Abi Salama, who is Umar Ibn Abdul Salama, one from the descendants from Umm Salama (another wife of the Prophet) and reads :
The Verse Verse
“Verily Allah intends to … (33:33)”
It was disclosed to us by The Messenger (S) in the house of Umm Salama. The Prophet was in a position to gather Fatimah Al-Hasan, Fatimah, Al-Husayn, and Fatimah and covered them with a cloak. He also covered ‘Ali with the background.
The Prophet declared: “O’ Allah! They are my home (Ahlul-Bayt). They are required to be free from all impureness as well as cleanse their body using complete purification. “Umm Salama (the wife of Prophet) asked: “Am I also included as an O Messenger of Allah? “the Prophet responded: ” You remain in your position and are heading toward a conclusion that’s beneficial.”
Sunni Source: Sahih al-Tirmidhi, v5 351 pages. 351,663.
The following is the Arabic translation of this tradition, as seen by Sahih al-Tirmidhi.
As we’ve already seen, al-Tirmidhi proves the Imam ‘Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasanand al Husayn are part of Ahlul-B. The purification sentence within the Qur’an (the final sentence in the verse 33:33) was made public to emphasize the virtues of these individuals, not to be used for the spouses of Prophet (S). It is also clear from the above relics of the Prophet’s personal words that he had to remove females from Ahlul Bayt.
If Umm Salama (ra) had been one of Ahlul-Bayt’s wives what was the reason why the Prophet didn’t react with her in an encouraging way? Why didn’t he place her in the cloth? Was there anything the Prophet tell her to keep her position? If Allah (S) have considered Umm Salama among Ahlul-Bayt, the Prophet could have placed her in the cloak, and asked her to be pure as well.
It is crucial to remember that it is crucial to remember the fact that Prophet (S) did not state: “These are among the Members of my House”. Instead, he said: “These are THE Members of my House”since there was not a single Ahlul-Bayt member living at the period. (S). Also, note that Umm Salama (ra) who is the sole wife of the Prophet. She is the one who recounts the tale in his father’s voice. She is also the one who tells Ahlul-Bayt who his members.
The tradition that al-Hakim has followed the formula for the final question and its response is as follows:
Umm Salama said: “O Prophet of Allah! Are you not a member of the family belonging to your family? “The Holy Prophet replied: “You have been blessed with an abundant future, but it only is the group that belongs to me and my clan. Oh, Lord! The members in my family are more than I am.”
Sunni reference: Al-Mustadrak by al-Hakim Vol. 2 416 p416
The information provided by al-Suyuti, as well as Ibn al Athir is as similar to this:
Umm Salama said to the Holy Prophet: “Am I also one of them? “He replied: “No. You’re in a very special area, and that is why your future is bright.”
- Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir V2 P289
- Tafsir Al-Durr alManthoor by al-Suyuti P198.
Also al-Tabari quotes Umm Salama saying:
I inquired, “O Prophet of Allah! Do you not think that I belong with the Ahlul-Bayt? “I swear by Allah All-powerful Allah I am sure that Allah Almighty Allah the Holy Prophet didn’t show me any difference. He declared: “You have a good future.”
Sunni Reference Tafsir Al Tabari Vol. 22, p7 under the commentary of Verse 33:33.
Alongside Sahih Muslim and Sahih al-Tirmidhi, which we have cited within the Tradition of Cloak on the authority of Aisha and Umm Salama respectively, below are some additional Sunni sources from the Tradition of Cloak who reported both versions of the Tradition:
- (3) Musnad Ahmad Ibn Hanbal Volume 6 332 pages 292,298 pages 331-331 V3 P252 V4, p107 in Abu Sa’id Al Khaudri.
- (4) Fadha’il al-Sahaba, by Ahmad Ibn Hanbal, v2 578 page 578. Tradition #978
- (5) al-Mustadrak, written by al-Hakim, in v2, page 416 (two classic texts) In Ibn Abi Salama, v3 (pp. 146-148) (five tradition) (p. 158,172).
- (6) al-Khasa’is, by an-Nisa’i al-Khasa’is written by an-Nisa’i
- (7) al-Sunan by al-Bayhaqi. The narration is by Aisha Al-Sunan as well as Umm Salama
- (8) Tafsir al Kabir, from al-Bukhari (the the creator of Sahih) Volume 1 2nd Part Page 69.
- (9) Tafsir al-Kabir, by Fakhr al-Razi V2 700 (Istanbul) From Aisha
- (10) Tafsir Al-Durr al Manthoor by al-Suyuti on page 198,605 of Aisha and Umm Salama
- (11) Tafsir Ibn Jarir al-Tabari, v22. Pages 5 to 8 (from Aisha and Abu Sa’id al-Khudri) 6,8 (from Ibn Abi Salama) (10 customs)
- (12) Tafsir al Qurtubi in the context of chapter 33:33 from Umm Salama
- (13) Tafsir Ibn Kathir V3 (p485), Tafsir Ibn Kathir, (Complete Version) by Aisha and Umar Ibn Abi Salama
- (14) Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al Athir, v2 (p12) (p12); V4 P79, as narrated by Ibn Abi Salama
- (15) Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah , by the Ibn hajar al-Haythami. Ch. 11, sec. 1, p221 in Umm Salama
- (16) Tarikh, by al-Khateeb baghdadi V10 with narrative by Ibn Abi Salama
- (17) Tafsir al Kashshaf by al-Zamakhshari. P193 and read by Aisha
- (18) Mushkil al-Athar(18) by al-Tahawi. 332-336 (seven tradition)
- (19) Dhakha’ir al-Uqba (1991) Dhakha’ir al-Uqba. Written from Muhibb al-Tabari. pp21-26. Written by Abu Sa’id Khaudri.
- (20) Majma Al-Zawa’id Al Haythami’s 9th edition of P166 (by numerous transmitters)
… and many More …
Here’s a different authentic version of “The custom of Cloak”which is linked with Safiyya who was one of the wife of Prophet (S). Ja’far Abi Talib’s narration:
When the Prophet of Allah was aware that the blessing of Allah was about to fall on him, so he told Safiyya (one spouse of his): “Call for me! Please call me! “Safiyya declared: “Call who, O the Messenger of Allah? “He advised that she: “Call for me my Ahlul-Bayt that is ‘Ali. Fatimah Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and Al-Husayn. “Thus we set up for them, and they showed up before him.
(S) walked over to them, and the Prophet (S) put his cloak over them and lifted his arms (toward toward the skies) proclaiming “O Allah! They are my dear ones (Aalee) Thus, God bless Muhammad and his family members (Aal) and his families (Aal) Muhammad. “And Allah, to whom is Might and Majesty, stated: “Verily Allah intends to take away all kinds of filth, O members who are members of Allah’s House (Ahlul-Bayt) in order to will subject you a total cleansing (Qur’an The last sentence in Verse 33:33)”.
* Al-Mustadrak by al-Hakim. Chapter 3 of “Understanding (the benefits) of companions”,” Vol. 3 page chapter 148. The author wrote: “This tradition is authentic (Sahih) in light of the standards employed for both Shaikhs (al-Bukhari and Muslim).”
- Talkhis on al-Mustadrak written by al-Dhahabi , 3rd edition, p148.
- Usdul Ghabah, by Ibn al-Athir 3rd edition P33.
Most of the beliefs on this subject suggest the final phrase of chapter 33:33 was revealed at Umm Salama’s home. Umm Salama (as quoted earlier) This suggests that it could be mentioned in the house of Safiyya.
Based on the beliefs of Sunni scholars such as Ibn Hajar, it is highly probable that the text was repeatedly revealed. Each time, the Prophet reiterated his actions front of different wives to ensure that they would recognize the Ahlul Bayt of his.
Their testimony as wives to the Prophet Muhammad (Aisha, Umm Salama and Safiyya) offers us the only way to be convinced that the Ahlul-Bayt in the time of Prophet Muhammad comprised just five individuals, including the Prophet Muhammad Lady Fatimah Imam Ali Lady Fatimah al-Hasan, al Husayn, and al-Aisha. (Peace be upon all of them).
The fact that the gender in part that follows Verse 33:33 is changed from feminine to masculine has led some Sunni scholars to think that the final verse was disclosed before The Imam ‘Ali, Fatimah, al-Hasan and al-Husayn. Ibn Hajar al-Haythami stated:
Based on the views of most (Sunni) observers according most Sunni experts, the assertion which reads Allah:”Verily Allah intends to … (the final sentence of verse 33:33)”was disclosed to ‘Ali Fatimah Al-Hasan and Al-Husayn because of the masculine gender utilized in the phrase “Ankum”and the following.
Sunni reference: al-Sawa’iq al-Muhriqah, by Ibn Hajar, Ch. 11 Section 1, p220.
Although Shi’a are a religion group, they are very respectful of wives that are righteous in wives of the Prophet (S) such as Khadija, Umm Salama, Umm Ayman and … (may Allah be pleased with their lives) who were loyal in his direction and Ahlul Bayt before and following the demise of Prophet (S) However, we do not even mention the renowned people in Ahlul Bayt because The Prophet explicitly disqualified them keeping with the traditional Sunni and Shi’i traditions.
Ahlul Bayt has distinctive virtues that only a holy person since the Prophet’s time could possess in their own world. They are, in the Qur’an: sinless purity, absolute perfection and unsurpassed perfection.